Richard Forster,
MLA Harvard, BScLA Mich. State

PROGRAM FOUNDATIONS -- 4 Chapter/web pages
Expanded Castello della Manta Italy, Point Pelee Canada and New York NY
August-September-October 2002, introductory material expanded Ontario and Vermont 2003
Expanded and edited substantially 2004
Additional substantive work Winter - Spring - Summer 2006
Ongoing annual and/or monthly updating and refinement
copyrighted at bottom of each page


creating environments with a sense of place
while planting - cultivating - rejuvenating yourself

To the former senior Swiss Jungian training analyst and mentor Dr. Phil. C. Toni Frey-Wehrlin, a very wise learned man who was one of the all time best among the "gnomes of Zürich". And to Michele Pace, former Italian School Director (NYC and Abruzzo) and porch chair philosophy friend who was simply a good man, what it's really all about. To Lodovico ... it takes one to know one ... and Sabina and work in the lavender field and country walks at Torre degli Alberi and holidays at Cala Grande, for reminding me at difficult times it's been an interesting life, not to give up my work and passion for Italy. Special thanks to Carlo ... another ... for encouraging me to write, and Susan and Elisabetta De Rege, for bringing the family together many times in Manta, Manhattan and Vermont. And to Melinda and the boys for always being there while holding down the Ontario home front and northern lake retreat. Thanks to Canada's Marion Woodman who helped get the ball rolling many years ago, also to Sonia Marjasch who once lived in Aesch-Förch CH, Martin Kalff, Zollikon, and many others in the Jungian community for never letting me forget I was doing the right thing hanging in there over the years applying the research and insearch to my original field. Particularly Dr Herman Pfander in Locarno, who had been a hiking friend after the Eranos days, who never let me forget the Design Academy for universal design patterns, 'Ecodesign with Human Nature'(c), educational travel sojourns in EU-Italy, and particularly landscape architecture - urban design grand tour study abroad programs with foundations in archetypal psychology and philosophy are my special calling. Ruth Ammann, very active senior and very grounded Zürich Training Analyst and internationally recognized sandplay therapist - lecturer, and a practising architect herself, shared reservations on American hegemony in landscape architecture and whether much could be achieved in typically extroverted design education lagging behind other fields in consciousness, especially in keeping up with the 21C scientific and philosophical worldview in deference to archetypes and Jungian contributions to the Zeitgeist. The Pedroni/Brizzio family who housed my students in Oggiogno di Cannero Riviera were especially helpful, including Maria Cristina, Maria Teresa, Cesarina and Pina. Special thanks go to Lyn Glanfield former student and award winning Ontario garden designer and to Walt Rickli - Swiss Canadian stone carver and fine garden crafter. Both helped with accommodations and discussion of the issues over the years. Gabriella Pace in Vicenza and others in Italy also opened their doors from time to time over the years welcoming me like one of the family. And to Carnegie Hill's intrepid Lisa (Lisa Lindblad Travel Design), who knows the value of travels and the journey, and who listened.

la dolce vita   ... in vino, "Veritas"
...and the wider the vision, the closer the Truth

Truth that appeals to the testimony of the senses may satisfy reason, but it offers nothing that stirs our feelings and expresses them by giving a meaning to human life. Yet it is most often feeling that is decisive in matters of good and evil, and if feeling does not come to the aid of reason, the latter is usually powerless. Did reason and good intentions save us from the World War, or have they ever saved us from any other catastrophic nonsense? Have any of the great spiritual and social revolutions sprung from reasoning -- let us say the transformation of the Greco-Roman world into the age of feudalism, or the explosive spread of Islamic culture?

CG Jung, Modern Man in Search of a Soul

In modern life we are swept away by technical achievement which promises to overcome dark nature. In our exuberence we lose sight of ourselves as animal beings at the mercy of a vast and intricate universe we barely comprehend. We loss our balanced standpoint which would include equally the achievements of culture along with the facts of our fated fragile existence. In our imbalance we have cut ourselves off from our roots as creatures of nature.

Meador, Uncursings xi-xiii

Medicine, education, money, food, energy, media, technology, religion, buildings, economics -- all of these organizing forms that together ought to make culture no longer do so but instead are making a pathological civilization. The new systems are fragmentation, specialization, expertise, depression, inflation, cruelty, hardness, violence, and absence of beauty. Our buildings are anorexic, our business paranoid, detached and abstract, and our technology manic. These symptoms indicate the loss of containment characteristic of the vessel of the soul... [requiring] re-evaluation of the domains of the modern world in terms of metaphor, image, story, and dream.

Robert Sardello

The broader issue addressed here is how to put heart and soul back in the built environment, and in education for environmental planners and designers: contact with nature and qualities of beauty, harmony, warmth and containment in architecture and cityscape that became cold and alienating with industrialization, more particularly in the Twentieth Century as mechanization took command over all.        

The bold type portions in this work are the author's emphasis for internet readability, where many are accustomed to rapid, intuitive scanning. If you prefer, you may begin by reading through only what is bolded, and, in a short time period, you will have a perspective on the entire work. When you want more detail, you can then return to areas of special interest, but always within a context of the whole.

For readers unfamiliar with archetypes it may be advisable to take your time, to read through all of the material, but more slowly and with frequent breaks. It will allow the necessary time for you to assimilate unfamiliar truths, what may at times appear to you as unconventional wisdom. To ease this process of mental digestion, narrative, metaphor and a writing style were introduced in which the subject matter is circumnambulated, toward the heart of the matter.

The work is somewhat personal and autobiographical. It describes wisdom gained from first hand experience, some of the events in a post university education ordeal that was initiating. It was to rebalance the head with heart, and to heal a body that nearly succumbed to cancer after working for many years as a professor in a field with an intellectually limiting view of the world. It was the usual masculine head trip, all too common nowadays, whereby one educates thinking out of balance with perceptual and evaluative functions. One then becomes stuck in a role that cuts one off from the heart and the gut instincts with somatic consequences. And then what followed a successful rebalancing effort, attempting to move forward, to put the ground, the warmth and intuitive understanding discovered in a truly 'renaissance' experience into work, in environmental design and teaching. Its been a long creative process for the one who saw instinctively the imbalance between inner and outer landscapes, and between the masculine and feminine in biophysical environment. One who took very seriously the lack of humanity in contemporary cultural form. One who came to see it as an environmental deprivation issue owing to one-sided thinking in Western civilization which grew increasingly mechanistic, from the industrial revolution onward, especially.        

What is offered in conclusion is not a purely masculine, intellectual-technical, object-oriented, problem solving approach. That is what we find in universities and technical-trade school education, and it does not get one anywhere on matters of heart. The aim is to develop a more efficient, less time-consuming initiation alternative to reintegrate the feminine principle with the masculine -- for advanced environmental planning and design students, and for post technical training practitioners, and creative people in general.        

Few would wish to repeat the long-drawn-out ordeal of the lonely pioneer, an odyssey on the quest for knowledge and creativity like the journey of the mythical hero. The pioneer is made to deviate from the conventional path in a given field, no longer compatible with the ideas that have shaped our worldview. A view that encompasses the arts and sciences which shifted beyond a turning point, into a wider sweep of consciousness that began during the previous century. Time and evolution were constellating a compensatory approach in the collective or transpersonal unconscious since the time of the Renaissance, triggering new discoveries in knowledge. If the pioneering individuals in various fields are at all connected with their instincts and creative drive, and remain grounded, they will let go of the old ways and begin to evolve, out of their own unconscious, new approaches contemporary with the newly formed worldview.        

When a given individual takes it out into the world and into one's discipline or profession, he may suffer a collective reparation from the adherents of conventional wisdom who do not wish to hear of it. He follows his nose and his feelings and he becomes a pathfinder in his field. But it is not yet conscious of what has happened in the world outside its more limited percepts. Architecture and landscape architecture have been cocooned comfortably within self-perpetuating bodies of literature, journals and works based largely on American developed academic concepts, mechanical approaches and professional licensing procedures. Long ago they split away and then from each other, thus fragmenting the field from the global mainstream of evolving ideas that might have impacted design with human nature. Landscape architecture occupies itself with academic training and spreads quickly around the planet begetting an ever multiplying force of busy practitioners, carrying on with business as usual in the patriarchal way, oblivious to the reality of an emergent worldview the nature of which could shatter its most established beliefs about itself and about the world. Many fields today suffer from fragmentation from the mainstream of ideas. A real act of heroism is required for the typical Western mind to open itself and cross a threshold. It demands a courageous act of faith, of imagination, and trust in the integration of feminine values with the masculine in a more complex reality. One that includes the notion of spirit and matter beyond the framework of Western religious dogmas.        

To achieve this reintegration of the repressed feminine, the masculine must undergo a sacrifice, an ego death. But the first step in a given field is more often to draw the line, to continue to control, deny, exploit and objectify the feminine, as the other. One wants rather to ignore it as a source, goal, and imminent presence to be fully acknowledged, respected and responded to for itself. In design education, especially in landscape architecture, sooner or later, semester rebellions will be joined by more and more students who will become pointedly articulate on the issues. Also, outside authorities, critics and the public in general who are fed up with alienating, non-places in their cityscape will demand a wider perception of the evolutionary imperative -- to open up to feminine values, the unconscious and truly creative environmental design process. What will be required is not more patriarchal attitude but the real masculine, the logos. And that's built on a firm foundation properly constellated within one's own psyche, born out of the womb of the Great Mother Earth principle, so to speak.        

The challenge of the new century at the outset of the so-called Aquarian Era, or New Age, is for the patriarchal masculine to see through and overcome its hubris and one-sidedness. It must own up to its unconscious shadow and enter into a new relationship of mutuality with the feminine and creative in all its forms. We face a psychological crisis that is existential, together with a biological crisis, in which both have come to be shaped in a such a way as to mirror the masculine view of the world -- i.e., in a man-made environment that is increasingly mechanistic, atomized, and alienating -- without soul, and therefore self-destructive. 'Destructivism' is occurring at an alarmingly increasing pace. It was projected forward in time to give us vignettes of possible futures in films such as 'Clockwork Orange', and more recent films based on science fiction literature, such as 'Star Wars', 'Star Treks' TV series, etc. According to Joseph Campbell, its our new mythology.        

The initiation process to the feminine principle needed to rebalance our masculine approach to environmental planning and design is ageless. To help the reader understand this, circumstances surrounding the present situation are given spiritual insight and intellectual amplification from symbolism interpreted in a pre-Renaissance fresco cycle inspired by 14C manuscripts. It includes 9 Heroes and 9 Heroines (the number of the muses), Christ's Passion, Errant Knight and Fountain of Youth mythemes -- all to be read symbolically. We discover that by accident, and in vicarious circumstances, the creative forerunner stumbles upon a precedent in his inner landscape -- archetypally and metaphorically like the Errant Knight in the world of chivalry -- and it happens in the outer world as well.        

One may speculate on the fate of those who do not get the picture on the true nature of the problem, who remain blocked or refuse to see the reality of human evolution, so to be able to let go, to accept change with a wider consciousness. In some cases remaining stuck may mean living a foreshortened life. An example would be today's adolescent smoker, who is vaguely aware of the danger, but remains in the head, with neither feeling nor intuition sufficiently educated in the system to consider the risks, or the nature of the consequences. One smokes himself into a habit because its cool in his in-group, or calms his nerves, perhaps with a false sense of spirit release. The notion of spirit, or pleroma, may be automatically projected from his unconscious contents and perceived in the smoke or incense rising through the air. It symbolizes the joining together of earth and heaven in the spiritualization of humankind. It may be viewed as an unconscious death wish which might better be taken as the need for the ego death of a negative attitude toward reintegrating the feminine in a wider consciousness, in assimilating the religious function. The alchemists' belief -- also widespread throughout the world -- is that the sort of steam or smoke that seemingly rises from a person in the death throws symbolizes, or may really be the soul or pleroma leaving the body. If the smoker has not the will to stop, he may eventually die of throat or lung cancer, thus concretizing the psychological projection. It would seem a strange and very unconscious rite of prayer -- offering homage to God in the form of the ultimate human sacrifice. One may come to see smoking as monotonous, automatic, really an autonomous filling of time, in which one unknowingly avoids spiritual life and thinking with feeling applied to the facts sensed. The doorway also would be closed to intuitive perceptions (insights: including both hindsight and foresight).        

Life is an endless process of discovery with learning experiences beyond formal education. Education unfortunately has its limitations, as overemphasis on patriarchal values and intellect sets up a functional imbalance in the psyche, within the bicameral mind and older and lower portions of the brain. It can block other instincts, including the feeling and intuition needed to project imaginally, to evaluate and to assimilate the ramifications of one's actions. When too much in the head, it is also possible to lose one's instinctual - material (maternal) ground in the here and now, 5-senses perception.        

Working with or following the innovator who becomes an original teacher, and in electing the timeless way which honors the feminine principle as well as the masculine, other individuals with similar concerns, professionally and psychologically, then begin their own more balanced growth process toward individual freedom and wellness, allowing access to the feminine principle, the unconscious and original creativity. But the process is now abridged. It becomes more contained, the path is less precarious, less divergent and time consuming than that of the pioneer.        

Moreover, students must alway be free to choose. There are many approaches and any given path taken by the forerunner isn't necessarily for all. No one on a study abroad semester, for example, should be made to work with the timeless way or archetypal pattern languages for planning designing and building. No one should be forced to reject conventional wisdom or method against one's will. It has to do with maturity and arriving at a balanced viewpoint embodying the opposites. One eventually has to come to terms with inner and outer reality which are divergent. The way of the self is neither the collective way at present, nor for those who are completely in their heads, nor for the weak of heart, insecure or rootless, nor for those have little better to do than screw around unconsciously on power trips in a life that is at best merely superficial. One would be better off becoming a waitress or a fireman or having a part time job at the beach to support one's unconscious drives. The way of the self aspiring to wholeness, wellness and longevity requires a calling from within, a mission to serve humanity and some inner or outer event signalling it's time to begin the inner grand tour -- like the opus magnus of the alchemists -- in which one masters one's own lifework.        

The most common signal for the opus to begin is the onset of what the alchemists' called nigredo, when life and work become boring. Obsolete routines with filling in of time and mechanical functioning are simply depressing. The self which knows more than the ego is not putting up with the old stuff done superficially anymore. As one begins to get the picture, to move forward on the path to the whole self and wider consciousness, one quickly finds a renewed source of energy for life and work. If one recognizes the source lies within one's inner well-springs and gets into his canoe and paddles down river with the energy, so to speak, he encounters considerably less stress in work and life. If one manages to get away with it in the collective, that is. If one also learns how to keep the doors open to the unconscious, and to work originally, the split which has been educated between the greater self (including the feminine) and the profession with its one-sided masculine ego is healed. The effect is to greatly reduce the amount of stress and conflict between psyche and soma (body). The dis-ease caused by the split may have been leading one down the wrong path toward disease, in whatever forms one may be genetically predisposed, with symptoms ever more life threatening. One needs to discover the key. It unlocks the doorway to the psyche, to the creative and growth-potential source in the well-springs of the unconscious. It enables one to get on the path in the psychological centering and maturing process in order to maintain wellness with access to creativity.        

In this work and the grand tour study abroad advocated, students are invited to experience a series of environments that are whole, allowing timeless sense of place and archetypes of wholeness in the biophysical environment, the guide and their own inner landscape to go to work in a kind of grand tour, inner-outer landscape synchronicity. An initiation, for those who are ready and open to it, allows one to begin, or to work further life's individuation (self realization) process unfolding the true self, as one reintegrates the opposites including the masculine and feminine principles. It is often compared with removing one's false persona, or mask, which is like gradually peeling away many layers of an onion to expose the core which has been surrounded by shadow, both positive and negative. In the process one begins to evolve an independent view of the world while mastering confidence in the fuller potentials of the self, including access to authentic-original creativity that may be applied in profession.        

The process is organic with eco-vernacular sensibilites. One works to stay grounded in the body as one begins to differentiate and reintegrate sensation, feeling and intuition into a wider, more balanced consciousness previously fused in archaic combinations with a masculine approach to thinking. The aim is to balance these functions in a more conscious quaternity with the calculative, analytical and reductive thinking more formally educated in a technique-based society.        

The emphasis in formal education has been on concrete thinking, a way of thinking which overpowers or negates feeling. Concretism is archaic (primitive) and undifferentiated, based entirely on perception through sensation. In civilized man, such thinking is attuned to and bound by physiological stimuli and material facts. Such an orientation is valuable in the recognition of outer reality, but deficient in how it is interpreted. It results in the projection of inner subjective factors into the objective data and produces an almost superstitious veneration of mere facts. There is a general inability to conceive of anything except immediately obvious facts transmitted by the senses, or an inability to discriminate between subjective feeling and sensed object.        

The rounding out of personality in a quaternity of more consciously differentiated functions allows a centering process in the psyche. It opens the doorway to the well-springs of creativity in the collective or transpersonal unconscious. It is experienced with a liberating effect. There is an enlivening of personality, as one becomes more animated, feels rejeuvenated, more alive and free -- like the Errant Knight emerging from the bath in the alchemical Fountain of Youth. The fountain concretized in stone was a popular Renaissance mytheme central to the piazza and garden villa. As access to the unconscious remains at the discretion of the greater self, the individuation or psychological growth process is not entirely under control of ego, or will. To move forward one must be receptive to the feminine principle and remain very grounded. One needs to let go, not to remain stuck in the head with compulsion and inability to control oneself. Where the ego is possessed by archaic thinking, or thinking is fused with sensation or feeling or intuition, or any other with a counterpart, in which case one can become possessed with fundamentalism, with mere ideology or belief neither rooted in fact nor universal values based on a centering principle deeply rooted in the psyche.        

The 'timeless way' has been advocated and described in books by Christopher Alexander on the process for evolving towns, buildings and construction. It appeals to down-to-earth common sense and values. It enables one to work with archetypal pattern languages in generating environments embued with an ageless sense of place, with qualities that call up a compassionate humanity. Places made in the timeless way support being and dwelling, in place, in nature, where one feels a sense of belonging as a part of nature, v apart from nature. Environments are made with a more conscious perspective on the entire human nature - nature's nature relationship.        

The timeless way of building is the way of the self. It is less calculative, less manipulative, less deterministic and reduces the power trip of single-minded intellect that is against nature and human nature. It is not conceptually abstract, or a coldly engineered, mechanical method of approach. It can neither be mastered by strict adherence to concept or method, nor 'acquired' with didactic instruction, nor by going to the bookstore or to the library for reading material that is merely 'about' the timeless way. But reading works written with feeling, narrative and metaphor can help constellate illumination. It is the awakening process on the way to enlightenment. In the Gestalt, or 'aha' experience of discovery, we learn to take advantage of our fleeting perceptions, thus moving forward into ever wider consciousness and higher levels of spirit and intellect.        

The present work embraces spirit and higher intellect. It argues for integration of feeling and intuition in a more functionally balanced design process. The work, ever evolving and compensatory, is directed at balancing planning and design education. The goal, simply, is to improve the quality of teaching for profession, and, to promote stewardship in the broadest sense for professional practise generating environments which are whole.        

The actual principle which implicates the unconscious has been given a feminine gender and repressed in many cultures, historically. It is innate -- inherited -- indigenous to the archetypal level in everyone's unconscious, female or male. The imbalance caused when the feminine is repressed, or oppressed and then remains blocked, is a problem for all education. It is viewed generally in the light of CG Jung's contributions to philosophy and psychology and more recent works by Joseph Campbell and many others.        

The work involved connecting the dots between many ideas into a whole, one that is plausible, but not easily verifiable or communicable owing to esoteric origins of some of the ideas. It calls for some intuitive understanding and a good grip on subjective, inner values. It requires faith in the female principle and the creative well-springs, which flow instinctively, from an activated unconscious in an organic process, into awareness with a discrimination of opposites by the ego. The process must be nurtured with respect. The feminine nature is matriarchal and of a consciousness that has been described as lunar in character. It is more deeply rooted in the darker, intuitive side of life. It is more lit by the dimmer reflections of the moon, metaphorically speaking, than man with his simpler nature and patriarchal tendencies for a more blinding solar consciousness, where the brighter, direct light of the midday sun makes it impossible to see one's shadow.        

The idea of wholeness referred to above embraces both the yin-feminine and yang-masculine in the Chinese ancient symbol of the opposites contained within a circle of dark and light, divided by a reversing double spiral, wherein each half of the spiral contains a nucleus, the germ of contrasting light or dark from which its opposite may develop. The symbol is holistic. The movement is from the hermaphrodite -- with a potential for the opposites archetypally constellated within the depths of the individual's unconscious -- to the androgyne, symbolizing the opposites have been brought up into the light, consciously realized, and integrated. The individual's own health and wellness, or wholeness (also, holiness - being the religious function) become intertwined, with the success of the operation (in the alchemists' opus) of separation and reintegration of the female and male principles. It is a process emblemized by another at least 4,000 year old symbol for divinities. Two winged serpents (male and female, as sun and moon, traveling in time, sometimes separate and sometimes coming together) are coiled in a double spiral (DNA-like helix) round the magic staff (symbol of office) of Hermes-Mercurius, Messenger of the Gods. He is the guide of humans through their changes of being. It suggests cosmic energy. It is the Hindu and Buddhist kundalini awakening energy which flows upwards coiled at the base of the spine. It rises through successive Chakra to the apex at the fontanelle. One may image it as a well-spring or little fountain, a symbol of the pure energy which drives a person's inner development and creativity.        

The cadeuceus also suggests phallic power and the Tree of Life associated with the dwelling of, or a substitute for the godhead (a means of communication or route for messages between Earth and Sky). With the winged serpents added by the Greeks, the symbol became a synthesis of the cthonian world below and that of the sky above transcending its origins. The spiritualized phallus -- or wand of Hermes -- originally worshiped in an early Greek agrarian cult, included magical powers which he controlled. It is thus the conductor of souls. It penetrates from the known into the unknown world, seeking a spiritual message of deliverance. It has the prophetic and healing powers of the tree-god. The cadeuceus also stood for moral conduct, balancing and reconciliation of the opposites, including female and male, or the feminine and masculine principles, in a single, sentient being (Lat. sentire, able to consciously perceive with the senses and intuition and to feel -- qualitatively -- with an instinctive intelligence).        

As the god of alchemy, Hermes-Mercurius stood for the integration of opposing principles which have to be reconciled (mercury - masculine solar principle, and silver - feminine lunar principle). One participates in the dynamic equilibrium of opposing forces evoked, which come together to constitute higher and stronger static forms and active structures. The ultimate condition is strength and self-mastery, and peacefulness of the Greater Self (projected into the heavens as the godhead with the power of the word, often mistakenly associated with -- overvalued as -- one-sided intellect).        

The Self may be realized equally in proportion by instinct (serpents) and on a spiritual level (wings). There is a link implied between the snake and rejeuvenation. Individually and collectively, it may be viewed as a symbol of Renaissance. To the alchemists the unifying gold of the rod of the cadeuceus was seen in male and female integration, also as expressing the basic dualism of fixed and volatile, wet and dry, hot and cold and other opposites, which is the well-spring of alchemical thought which must be sucked back into the oneness of the Philosopher's Stone. With but a single snake entwined, the cadeuceus is an attribute of Aesculapius, god of healing and, as Jung saw it, an emblem of homeopathic medicine -- the snake that both poisons and cures -- wounds the unconscious hero or heroine for a purpose, and then cures the person into wider awareness (presumably, with the opposing snake's energy then brought into play).        

The cadeuceus with the serpents remained the symbol of ambiguity and complexity and of the infinite potential of development, all uniquely human characteristics. The serpents entwined around the staff -- symbolizing the Tree of Life -- indicate egoism (possession) associated mainly with the god of intellect (and power-head trips over nature) tamed and brought under control. According to the Penguin Dictionary of Symbols: "their venom is transformed to healing, the corruption of life force brought back to its proper channel. Health 'is right proportion, harmonization of desire (the serpents' symmetrical coils), control of emotional stimuli, the need for spiritualization and sublimation [which] not only rule the health of the soul, [but] determine the health of the body as well.' Such an interpretation would make the cadeuceus the especial symbol of psychosomatic balance."        

The individuation process evolves within psyche and soma in a timeless way which may be difficult for some to comprehend, beholden to conventional wisdom, more linear thought process and an intellect focussed mainly on the visible and tactile aspects of one reality limited to the outer world. This one-sided mentality is transcended by the 'initiated', the one who awakens to the 'other', the feminine, the inner landscape and the opposites, as one strives for completeness, remains open and manages to stay absolutely grounded and centered, typologically, being quintessentially receptive to the Music of the Spheres. It may be experienced as a kind of Divine intervention from a transpersonal unconscious with archetypes of potential for all kinds of developmental/behavioral patterns innate to the deepest reaches of the human psyche, in the DNA.        

The origins of consciousness are in the evolution of the human brain with its development of Self in the bicameral mind. The authentic-creative, 'True Self' individual discovers in an evolutionary process that is uniquely individual an ever greater personality. It would include the art of designing, working instinctively with fleeting perceptions, or aided by the dream, or other creative manifestations rising into awareness like bubbles from the depths of the oceans, from what Jung termed the universal, or transpersonal, ''collective unconscious". It is the way of the small, the humble and the beautiful filled with the radiance of the gods. It inspires awe. It has been stumbled upon by many of the greatest minds in history. Some of these people were inducted into the timeless way by self-made masters who became guides or teacher-mentors. Their works endure through the ages, like the etherial quality and mood of Botticelli's beautiful 'Spring' maiden, seemingly guiding one through the forest as an inner anima figure to be introjected mythologically and metaphorically. Also, his 'Birth of Venus' with its obvious connection to the sacred feminine as she rides the waves over the waters of the unconscious on her seashell. Or Leonardo's Mona Lisa, with her knowing, enigmatic smile. She would seem to entice all who pass by her in that gallery of the Louvre to pause in front of her and to ponder the nature of her secret.        

The archetypal foundations on which this work rests are diverse. They include an appreciation for the part played by irrational and synchronistic processes, the opposites, the subjective, mythology, metaphor and the significance of symbolic life and the experiential value of Ancient Greek, Roman and other secret societal mystery rites -- for a compensatory calling up of intuition, feeling and values to round out, to rebalance the human psyche, originally created whole and thus unified at birth. The synthesis was informed, secondarily, by 'great works' of alchemists whom Jung interpreted in uncovering typology: the psychological functions and the attitudes of extroversion and introversion contributing to the unfolding of personality in the human psychological growth - maturation process.        

The present work was inspired by a similar underground current of philosophy and ideas on which it is apparent the Renaissance Academies were grounded, particularly of Marsilio Ficino, who mentored several of the greatest artists of all time. The work is infused with the author's passion for an interpretive hypothesis: the archetype of healing, of wholeness aimed at the rounding out and balancing of personality, is what drives the journey of life's purpose in the pursuit of happiness. The journey encompasses, in a centering process, both inner and outer landscapes, the opposites, their interrelationships and interdependencies, as one begins to discover, initially, what lies in the lowness and psychological depths of one's personal shadows. And then what follows -- the whole resplendent self with one's higher potentials.        

The inner journey to wholeness, or wellness, has been projected by people onto natural and cultural landscape in the form of the traditional, European 'grand tour', over the alps. It was largely for northerners of colder climates (however unselfconscious) to ground the psyche and experience the 'other', in the warmth radiating from the overall environment, the people, and the creative inspiration to be gained from the cultural heritage of southern regions, particularly in, but not limited to present day Italy. This journey, and the experience of the 'traveler' (to be distingished from today's typical tourist) may be viewed as archetypally driven toward a teleological aim for rounding out typology in greater consciousness, in compensation to formal education focussed on one-sided thinking. Over several centuries (17C - 20C) the journey was made by so many 'northerners' of the artistic and/or scientific temperament -- both the famous and unknown.        

The arts and humanities teach us
who we are,
and who we can be.

Ronald Reagan, former American President
the one who promoted the 'greed is good mentality' for America, that much of the world is following, that is against the public and the commons by demonizing and de-funding government along with privatization of essential services in unaccountable monopolies at far greater cost with lessor quality. In other words, increasingly worldwide kleptocracy has been bilking the public

In today's global village a one-sided, electronic and mechanistic, intellect-based mentality has become significant everywhere among the mass-educated population. Thanks to today's understanding -- on the pivotal ideas that have shaped our worldview, and the wealth of philosophical and scientific information available on the big picture, on what every student should know about the history of both Western and Eastern thought -- we may travel both the inner and outer landscape, whilst being more informed, so to reach ever higher levels of consciousness and our greatest individual potentials. All we need is a taste of the journey to discover the mind's passion for the muses. We will want to return to the heartland of the Renaissance in Italy. We will want to enjoy that special quality of Mediterranean light. We will want to experience, again and again, the inspiration, the containment, the special qualities of warmth in environment. And the beauty of the world's greatest concentration of cultural heritage ever achieved by hard-working, creative souls. We discover archetypal patterns embodied in the works of some of the greatest artists of all time. And almost everywhere in the cultural landscape, the towns, villages and historic centers, we find outstanding examples of universal pattern languages -- in the organic, vernacular building traditions of the unknown.        

Now the suggestion I ought to write something on the subject of 'design for human nature' first came long ago, in 1968 in Washington D.C., at a small White House invitational Conference on Natural Beauty and the Roadside chaired by Lawrence Rockefeller. I was a rookie Instructor and Research Associate representing Harvard federally funded research on the freeway and its impact on environment and driver behavior. Another landscape architect was there, an ecoplanning consultant who had been attracting a lot of media and public attention. It was Ian McHarg, Professor and Chairman of Landscape Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. He had been Visiting Professor at Harvard 2 years before, helping out with a regional landscape planning studio, providing lectures, project critiques, and his ecoplanning reports also for a modest case study publication we attempted, which became something of a classic over the years. This was Three Approaches to Environmental Resources Analysis, funded and published by The Conservation Foundation in Washington. It described McHarg's ecological planning contributions as one of the 3 authors 'case studied' in a time honored Harvard tradition.  

At this meeting, Ian, Lawrence Rockefeller and Russell Train, then President of the Conservation Foundation, and several others, who's names or presence I am sorry to have forgotten, were having coffee during a break. Conversation was about Ian's slide-talk to the group and his forthcoming book, Design with Nature, which also had been funded by the Conservation Foundation. During the conversation, Ian referred to my work abstracting his environmental inventory and analysis 'approach' contributions from his various projects, and the conclusion I wrote in our little Harvard study report, and his own substantial book which was to become a widely read ecological planning landmark publication over subsequent decades, saying someone needed to do the obvious complement to his natural resource-oriented contribution. The subject would be human considerations, or 'design for human nature'. And with my interests and MIT course background with planning author Kevin Lynch, who wrote The Image of the City, The Openess of Open Space, What Time is this Place? and Managing the Sense of the Region (and subsequently, A Good Theory of Urban Form), I should tackle 'design with human nature', one day!  

I was not ready or up to the task then, as I knew the human side was in a far more infant conceptual stage than was design with nature's nature. And besides, I had a traveling fellowship and a research/writing grant in my pocket to travel and experience the landscape and great outdoor spaces and places in Europe, for myself, requiring I make studies as deemed appropriate for a year. I obviously had a burning desire to get moving on the traditional 'Grand Tour' for the artistic/scientific personality I had earned.  

The seeds planted with that "You should write Design with Human Nature!" remained 'downstairs' many years, germinating in my subconscious. And I suppose it probably had a considerable influence on me for over 3 decades, occasionally trying to push to the surface like an obnoxious weed in a field that was outright hostile to such 'touchy' content, causing it slip below the daily agenda of conscious thought.  

The working paper which follows is an attempt to exorcise a little daimon creative implant in the discoverer, the curious one, who always wants to see what lies ahead along the road beyond the next hill. It grew from a timeless quest for the truth, 'veritas', that was given additional impetus by Ian McHarg. Since the beginning semesters of undergraduate landscape architecture education in the 1960's, I never felt comfortable with so-called 'human factors' or the aesthetic 'criteria' for design. What schools are still trying to teach students in 'basic design' to use calculatively -- yet we almost never manipulated such 'criteria' into solutions, ourselves -- may be sometimes useful in evaluating designs, but are impractical, incapable of generating designs.  

The truth is the environmental design professions in general and landscape architecture in particular have no humanistic - intellectual - philosophical constructs for an in-depth foundation based on universal understanding that can justify their existence, one that is communicable in accord with today's scientific worldview. Whenever the subject comes up landscape architects have tried to escape what many regard as vital and specific to their profession: the very issues of quality, aesthetic beauty and balance or harmony in the character of biophysical environment which has tremendous psychological effect on people, primarily at the unconscious level. And there is a possibility landscape architecture as we have known it will not survive very long in our 'New Age' marked by accelerated change, where the only thing certain will be accelerated widening of consciousness in the collective with major shifts in worldview. Undoubtedly, there will be a lot more watering of ground from carefully measured out jars of awareness which astrological - mythological images of the era symbolized by 'Aquarius' would suggest. Insights on subjective - 'objective' interpretive facts will pour forth from an activated unconscious in increasing numbers of creative people, whether bursting forth autonomously like bubbles rising from an ocean or coaxed up out of the eternal-internal wellsprings constellated to inform individuals and the world as creative people step forward with courage, unafraid to speak up on the impending environmental inevitability.  

For some enlightened insights on a profession that has been continuing to lose its relevance for some decades in contributing education to broaden its vision in solving environmental problems, see Landscape Architecture Canada, Fall 1980, 'Research Needs for the Future'. It is a collection of papers from a seminar held earlier in the year at the Université de Montréal, with summary and conclusions by Richard Forster who raised the issue: 'Can the profession Survive on Mythical Assumptions -- in Theoretical Vacuum?' Senior, most successfully experienced, Canadian professionals were interviewed more recently, echoing similar things, which clearly were assimilated more than a decade later. One reaffirmed the point referred to above about the profession's losing its relevance, another admitting professionals can't cope as generalists (in an interdisciplinary manner) as the schools can't teach them what they don't know. The present author would take the analysis to its conclusion. The context for the professional knowledge base needs to be broadened to encompass natural systems which are being worked on steadily, successfully, in many schools. But what clearly is not being done, which must be included, is work on biological habitat theory, particularly in accepting the reality of the human psyche, archetypes, the need for a better understanding of 'the opposites' or opposing principles -- male and female, yang and yin, classicism and romanticism, and etc. We need to understand better how creative - originative, synthesizing processes function, the role of compensatory, intra-psychic processes in evolution and the 'enantiadromia' or upset effect. We don't recognize the function of the female or 'yin' principle given the feminine gender collectively assigned to the unconscious. We need a more conscious framework of understanding contributing to a more in-formed conscious and unconscious design process embracing design for human needs. For the brief reaffirmation that was in the more recent report see the English language web page below by Linda M. LeGeyt, 1998, Université de Montréal, École d'Architecture de Paysage:         

'A vision for the future based on voices from the past'

NOTA: As the web page cited above was removed shortly after this link was made, perhaps a mere coincidence, perhaps one may infer to conceal the truth as timing and the ISP reader log for the present page might suggest. It may be noted the author has electronic and hard copies on file containing the summary with quotations from faculty and senior professionals interviewed. It may well ring true -- landscape architecture is in a self-destruct mode -- as one may conclude from removal of such valuable information clearly posted with intent to help professional education in promoting healthy discussion, research and work to move forward in rendering a profession more relevant. This mistaken or wrongful act was not helpful and is further evidence of a festering situation. It is simply unhealthy and misleading. It only adds to delusion among students, professionals and professional associations. It also brings into question the validity of legislative enactments for professional registration. Ultimately, it contributes to the deception of society which has entrusted the profession.  

The mere existence of a problem we shall refer to as 'patriarchal one-sidedness' causes dis-ease at the unconscious level in the individual, adding to the stress factor in students and professionals. A conflict or 'split' is set up in the psyche, between mind and body, between culture with a professional 'false persona' overlay on the one hand and the individual's whole or 'true Self nature' and the instincts on the other. From a psychological standpoint, if the split is substantial and is allowed to continue, it is a major cause of neurosis: often referred to as 'mid-life crisis'. Moreover, this critical state of affairs is occurring earlier nowadays for an increasing number of people who are in their twenties and thirties. If the problem is not addressed soon and openly in education, as people are becoming better informed, one of the inevitabilities will be lawsuits.  

If the suspicion is true, there may be character traits typical of many who unconsciously projected on the design professions in choosing to study and enter them. Meaning, psychologically, a cultured 'professional mastery' or authority 'complex' which hooked them into the field in order to be forced eventually to deal with their power complexes to exert order and control over others and environment. In other words an outer projection of an inner need to heal themselves, by better designing their own personal inner - outer landscape relationship, to mirror, to better reflect positively a whole balanced self. And, if the complex is relatively autonomous and unconscious and it is in grip or possession of the person, it is know as a 'splinter psyche'. One of the commonest causes is a moral conflict, notably exacerbated while undergoing formal education, which is not without traumatizing effects due to oppression of the psyche with intellectual power (head) trips. The conflict develops out of the individual's repression of wellness. It may include repressed compassion for others and nature. It prevents the healthy integrated mind - body system, as blocked psychological growth retards development of a more balanced differentiation of typological functions necessary for the synthesis of the psyche, with the apparent impossibility of culturally reaffirming the whole of one's nature in the collective.  

Complexes are what Jung called the building blocks of the psyche. They are the source of all emotions, which may be further transmuted into real feeling rooted in universal values and archetypal potential for psychological growth in greater personality, within an evolving, evermore conscious, sophisticated, balanced and interrelated mind and body-instinct system. The problem discussed here is one of educationally frustrated archetypal intent. Almost everyone knows nowadays that people have complexes. But what is not so well know is that our complexes virtually can have us. Unconscious identification with a complex associated with a cultured, patriarchal mentality focussed on one-sided intellect suppresses the contrasexual or matriarchal principle associated with the 'opposites' in one's unconscious. It sets up a conflict between one's repressed instincts (especially feeling and intuition), and a prevailing analytical - calculative, 'rational', functional engineering approach, which is mechanistic, with many unknown presumptions built in. An approach which at base is interpretive and, therefore, it is colored by subjectivity and is not really objective at all. On the surface it looks more like traditional 'classicism', however the work of the ancients was really more grounded in other instincts, notably feeling and intuition.  

Apart from intellect there are other psychological needs and functions instinctual to the psyche, requiring a counterbalance honoring receptivity to values so deep in the unconscious they may be said to be archetypal, with patterns embodied in the 'timeless way' in originative design, from origins. In synthesis this process is more organic, humane, and in nature it is synchronistic when properly constellated and incubated. It must be allowed to well up through one's biographical unconscious without negative shadow contamination. It stems from origins in a deeper, transpersonal collective unconscious which is cross-cultural, being universal. The timeless way requires creative access to archetypal pattern languages stemming from the deeper unconscious, in a more subjective and imaginal, intuitive-feeling design process. The process is informed or constellated by conscious external knowledge of the patterns mirroring the inner landscape patterns and it embraces metaphor. It is more typical of the 'classicism' of the Ancients and the vernacular traditions and indeed some aspects of 'romanticism'. Moreover, the history of ideas synthesized within the present worldview enables the designer to function with more of the process in cognitive awareness. One can work with greater knowledge of the nature of creative process, knowing how, and more importantly, when to feed analytical work into the process, or to cultivate receptivity, incubation, and to be able to let go, to allow an unconscious synthesis to come into awareness imaginally and be expressed verbally, or graphically, or modelled three-dimensionally. The timeless way tends to be culturally suppressed by many individuals, and further, it may be oppressed deliberately in formal design education, or by professional societies (and state licensing enactments) unknowingly obsessed with a mentality that is sometimes superficial and merely technologically functional - mechanical. What we have is more like pseudo-science. It is less grounded than true science which honors instinct, in which both objectivity and subjective interpretation are taken into account.  

Design education neither recognizes the objective reality of the psyche, nor has it been aware of archetypal and analytical depth psychologies and it is barely cognizant of the nature and role of unconscious processes in the act of design. The complex situation briefly outlined above is a precondition for neurosis in individuals when a body-mind imbalance or an actual split is allowed to continue in the psyche. Further, when it remains uncompensated, it may lead to more serious problems, even psychosis or physical illnesses to which one may have been cultured in trauma and/or genetically predisposed. The imbalance which may be observed in design education connects however with a forward moving teleological aim associated with an underground current of thought running very deep in the collective unconscious linked with a larger, phylogenetic metaprogram in the DNA. Until the last quarter of the previous century it was not well understood. It is metaphysical and evolutionary in nature and it is better appreciated in the context of the middle to end of Twentieth Century scientific and philosophical worldview, or weltanschaaun (D). This problem is amplified and discussed further in what follows.  

Jung said the anima soul is the archetype of life itself. It is personified in a man's dreams by images of women. They range from the seductress to the spiritual and creative guide, thus being associated with the Eros principle, spontaneity and relatedness, like a muse mythologizing, influencing ideas, attitudes and emotions, while also being an inner personality complementary to ego identity with the persona. The anima stands in a compensatory relationship to the persona which is just a societally cultured or professional mask. The psychological priority in the first half of life is to free oneself from the anima fascination with the mother. But in later life a lack of conscious relationship with one's anima (including the Great Earth Mother - Gaia aspects of personality) is accompanied by symptoms characteristic of a "loss of soul". Ongoing or permanent loss means a diminuation of vitality, of flexibility, of receptivity, and of human sympathy, empathy and compassion. In other words -- no relatednesss. It follows then, where there is 'no sense -- no feeling', as the saying goes. Soullessness is accompanied by crustiness, rigidity, fanatical one-sidedness, obstinacy, weary resignation and childish irresponsibility, with an overriding intellect causing one to be too much in the head, or perhaps leading a scholarly life, that is didactic and arid -- dry-as-dust -- merely academically pedantic, narrowly controlling and overly reductive. In such a state of possession it is impossible to become typologically whole (encompassing Jung's 4 functions of sensation, feeling, thinking and intuition, with the 2 attitudes of introversion and extroversion for each function, all being more or less differentiated at some level in awareness).  

The anima quest is one and the same as the historical grail conquest. It really means the completion of a whole personality, also exhibiting character, wit and grace. It transforms a male into the individuated individual who is broadly integrative and humane. It is symbolized by Leonardo's Vitruvian icon for Universal man. It is the Renaissance personality, with a person's masculine side reborn whole within an integrated hieros gamos, an inner union of the masculine and feminine principles, in which the relationships between inner and outer landscape are also reconnected. The individuating personality now finds renewed energy to move forward in life with vitality, while experiencing a feeling of liberation (to avoid today's much overused utterance: 'freedom'). We will examine Leonardo's Uomo Universale icon in more detail later.  

Jung had suggested that if the encounter with one's shadow, the unrecognized or repressed hidden aspects about oneself, both good and bad, is the "Apprentice-piece" in masculine development, then coming to terms with his anima is the "Master-piece", evolving from a troublesome inner female adversary into a functional relationship between consciousness and the unconscious. The grail conquest of the anima as an autonomous complex is finding one's place in relationship in-the-world with self-identity, an inner authority coming from being centered and balanced within the true or whole self with access to one's greater human potential.  

In a woman the inner masculine side is the animus functioning more like an unconscious mind, manifesting negatively in fixed ideas, collective opinions and unconscious or a priori presumptions laying claim to absolute truths and it is called the 'animus possession', where Eros usually takes second or no place at all to a kind of pseudo-Logos in identification with the patriarchal world or the father, where a woman is in danger of losing her femininity. And while a man's task in assimilating the effects of his anima requires discovering his true feelings, a woman familiarizes herself with the nature of her animus by constantly questioning her ideas and opinions, reflecting on them and discovering their origins to penetrate more deeply into the background of her own inner landscape discovering the primordial images of archetypes giving form to the world.  

This particular psychological complex problem, which is widespread in the general population and may be endemic to the design professions, is a cultural - educational issue. It points to the need for the individual always to maintain inner and outer landscape, subjectivity and objectivity, the arts and sciences in an interdependent, balanced relationship. The complex driven by overemphasis on patriarchal attitudes actually inhibits professionals maturing beyond a professionally educated mechanical functionalism, an engineering 'technical high school' approach to planning and design viewed as mere problem solving, ignoring or expressing an ambivalence toward qualitative relationships, subjectivity and any connection between inner and outer landscape. It is exacerbated where there is too little educational focus on the conceptual supportive framework for the design professions and too little psychological understanding of the role of subjective, irrational, acausal and synchronistic aspects in design process and in design synthesis derived from the creative well-springs from the 'source' incubated in the unconscious historically given a feminine gender identity. Mythologically it has been projected as the matriarchal Gaia principle associated metaphorically with the fecundity of the Great Mother Goddess.  

Its as if superficiality, fads and stylism were ever the name of the design game -- apart from good progress made in technological design implementation, professionalism and natural ecosystems planning from functional standpoints -- when confronted with a serious and in-depth psychological problem of designing for basic human habitat needs which are not merely limited to the physical or mechanical-functional. Then landscape architecture indeed faces an uncertain future as knowledgeable people outside the field in coming to awareness of its existence would dismiss it as an 'unconscious profession'. Peter Jacobs suggested in regard to the intellectual constructs he spoke of in the 1998 report by Linda M. LeGeyt, a non-landscape architect incidentally -- whom this author does not wish to construe also to include depth psychology or the history of ideas shaping the current scientific and philosophical worldview which may or may not have been intended by Peter -- "It contributes to the very real possibility the profession won't exist in the very near future, because if it doesn't have a basis for arguing on its own behalf, then I don't see any way it can exist."  

One may intuit with feeling, both differentiated and integrated in one's thinking -- perfectly valid in the current scientific worldview, one would emphasize -- it is as if landscape architecture, as a profession in Canada, would seek to forsake human behavior and needs, the reality of the unconscious, and irrational or subjective aspects of the human psyche, including certain 'a priori' inherited aspects, archetypal - depth psychology, and the profession's historical roots in the arts, giving it all over for a single-minded patriarchal technology with rational-functional planning. From a wider perspective, one may see this a collective, unselfconscious attempt to regress to an existential, more calculative and mechanistic approach to design from the past which overlooks the whole inner landscape, the subjective and the qualitative, and its interdependent relationship with the outer landscape. Whereas, this author stated elsewhere, mechanical fuctionalism may be less than the half of a holistic approach according to Carl Jung, the post-Jungians and various scientist - philosophers studied who contributed to the closing Twentieth Century worldview.
[Included were Bachofen's 1867 'Mother Right', and 20C writings by Buber, Santayana, Piaget, Klein, Mumford, Goethe, Eliade, Hegel, Steiner, Popper, Campbell, Bateson, Lévi-strauss, Watts, Kuhn, Maslow, Carson, McLuhan, Pearls, Heideggar, Laing, Ehrlich, Giedeon, White, Schumacher, Groff, Von Franz, Hillman, Capra, Chodorow, Bohm, Progogine, and others. The author discussed the work with Sir John Eccles, who received the Nobel Prize for his work on the evolution of the brain, writing also about its creation of self. Eccles was one of several individuals the author met personally in the early 1990's who understood immediately the direction and conclusions taking shape in the present work and the implications for education].  

To obtain a quick perspective on the end of the century shift in world view one may refer to the concluding chapters of "The Brilliant Bestseller" this author discovered in 2003 on the "Museum Staff Favorites" display occupying a small table by the cash registers at the entrance to the Bookstore within New York's Metropolitan Museum. The book: 'The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View', Richard Tarnas, 1991. There are 4 pages of accolades inside the cover by respected authorities in many fields and one on the cover itself penned by Professor Joseph Campbell, an earlier reviewer of the project before his death several years before publication: "The most lucid and concise presentation I have read, of the grand lines of what every student should know about the history of Western thought. The writing is elegant and carries the reader with the momentum of a novel.... It is really a noble performance." Professor David L. Miller, like Campbell a lecturer and seminar leader attended by this author, but on a number of occasions in Zürich and Toronto, wrote of it: "Exceptionally well-organized ... extremely well-written.... Above all, it is replete with insights that 'go off' like wonderful little firecrackers throughout the text.... Its radically interdisciplinary nature explicitly calls into question the division of knowledge into 'fields', which is, to be sure, a large part of the point of the tale and its significance: not trees, but the whole jungle in compelling articulation..."  

The point made here, fellow designers, is that architecture, interior design, landscape architecture, landscape design, urban design or any fragment of the whole 'environmental design' field can neither ignore human needs, the subjective and interpretive psyche, or its myth-making functions or the projection-making nature of creative processes, on the one hand, nor, on the other, attempt to assume or artificially 'make up' or isolate a discreet body of knowledge for that particular technology-based subset, for so-called 'human factors' or needs, one that is not congruous with the current scientific - philosophical worldview. This is the leading edge, integrating the female principle in what has been until now an entirely masculine approach on all fronts. In our time, there are people working across disciplines at the forefront of human knowledge, who have been struggling, and rather successfully, to bring forth something fundamentally new in human history, something which already has been accepted as needing to be accomplished, paraphrased below:  

Each perspective, masculine and feminine, is here both affirmed and transcended, recognized as part of a larger whole, for each polarity requires the other for its fulfillment. And their synthesis leads to something beyond itself: It brings an unexpected opening to a larger reality that cannot be grasped before it arrives, because this new reality is itself a creative act.    
But why has the pervasive masculinity of the Western intellectual and spiritual tradition suddenly become so apparent to us today, while it remained so invisible to almost every previous generation? I believe this is occurring only now because ... a civilization cannot become conscious of itself, cannot recognize its own significance, until it is so mature that it is approaching its own death.    
Today, we are experiencing something that looks like the death of modern man, indeed that looks very much like the death of Western man. Perhaps the end of "man" himself is at hand. But man is not a goal. Man is something that must be overcome -- and fulfilled, in the embrace of the feminine.    

Richard Tarnas, concluding para: 'The Passion of the Western Mind'

The rational planning and mechanical functionalism of the Machine Age was compensated in the second half of the Nineteenth century with the parks movement and a nostalgia for an agrarian past with historical associations. It has continued and now market forces of a global culture promote an eclectic character in landscape design that has come to be viewed as a commodity, as Landscape historian Elizabeth Barlow Rogers has pointed out in 'Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History', a mere matter of consumer taste expressed in the casual intermingling of what was thought to be various past styles. The result has been an obsession with historical associations and superficiality.  

The argument presented below is there is little appreciation of the meaning underlying the prototypes in historic landscape styles from the archetypal point of view of modern depth psychology, especially the analytical psychology of Carl Jung.  

Jung's unique Twentieth Century contribution to knowlege synthesized the history of pivotal ideas that shaped our worldview in the 3000 year-odyssey in pursuit of the truth underlying our highest instincts for spirit and intellect with a conscience. His paradigm-shifting framework of opposites, archetypes and wider understanding infused with timeless wisdom of the ages pulled so much into perspective and laid the conceptual foundation for us as we enter the new century in the so-called Aquarian Era, a time of even greater transition and enlightenment than the Renaissance.  

The historical meaning of metaphoric content in the outer landscape has not been well understood for its symbolism masking an unknown, subterranean line of thought reflected in timeless, archetypal patterns motivating behavior. In landscape design, we lack an in-depth, psychological understanding of the relationship of human beings to the landscape throughout history -- in mytho-poesis -- where many of these timeless patterns have been mutilayered and embedded in spaces to make true 'places'.  

Genuine places have a genius locus, rooted in values so deep with feeling, they may be said to be archetypal. Environments embued with character from the patterns 'emplace' us, so we may dwell within them and ourselves, feeling at home, at one with, or at-one-meant, in 'atonement' with nature. Dwelling in place is supportive of -- we even may say it nurtures -- never changing humanistic needs of the soul for human psychological growth in an ever widening, more balanced state of consciousness with a feeling of greater personal security, together with an unfolding of spiritually animated personality. We 'dwell' in a 'participation mystique' between subject and object, sustaining 'orientation' (a sense of where we are in the world of space and time) and 'identity' (a timeless feeling of true self, of who we really are, from one moment to the next), with a sense of belonging, of being in place, a part of -- and not apart from -- the natural world and the universe. Slowly, we arrive, with a sense of empowerment, where we become more and more unshakeable in an uncertain world, where the only thing that is certain is change itself.  

This 'grounding', on earth, enables the human species alone to actualize within the inner landscape of the individual -- and the collective psyche as well -- a reflective consciousness encompassing psychological opposites. It enables a stewarding of ourselves and the earth's resources with a conscience. The survival of the planet and the human species depends on our maintaining our ground.  

Only by reuniting scientific understanding with psychology, religion and spirituality, natural philosophy, and a more enlightened approach to intuitively original, artistic-creative process will we be able to create places that are spiritually life-sustaining, that are more in accord with our DNA - phylogenetic metaprogram in a truer sense than present artifice. Attempts to preserve nature and re-create psychologically resonant, metaphorical representations in designed environments may heighten a spiritual bond between these little understood humanistic ideals and the built form and more natural environments. It may help us reconnect mind with body to ground ourselves in the Self, as we maintain contact with nature's nature participating in the timeless unfolding of our human nature, as we differentiate and balance the opposites in the psyche, in rounding out the ego with greater consciousness, awareness of values and personality.        

We lack the necessary understanding of how culturally sustaining myths may be embodied creatively in environments to reanimate our spiritual selves. What we find today is a tendency toward an unconscious, or at best, superficially understood mirroring of fragments of the human soul in stylistic multiplicity and eclectic design, in which even modernism and post-modernism finally have become stylistic design options to be manipulated, functionally and mechanically, in an assemblage that is like a pastiche without resonance of soul, without the spiritual radiance of the gods. What has been offered up in design education has not been put to question from the perspective of advanced scientific thinking in general, especially, from what we now know about the realm of the human psyche with insights into archetypal and depth psychology, contributed most substantially by Jung. This perspective decisively, fundamentally, altered and broadened dominant views of the human being as conceived by natural and human scientists in the twentieth century.  

Although it may seem at first glance otherwise to the reader, this is not going to be a discussion of psychoanalytic reductionism of the Freudian kind, and not the ordinary academic 'think piece', or abstrusely erudite discussion on aesthetics. Having personally been 'reduced' from a rational intellectualism more typical of the 'ivory tower' academic, it is therefore an attempt to sublimate the energy of the linear thought process-obsessed power horse of desire. The aim here is to get beyond intellectualism and peer group 'individualism' and to fly upward from the cave site of the grotto, which contains the wellspring that flows from interior landscape onto the ground in outer landscape, mounted on the watered wings of Pegasus flying up through the clouds carrying the fructifying rain. Water is a well-known symbol for the 'source' in the unconscious, transpersonal psyche. And the aim is to reach for the creative imagination and its real powers of elevation which raise the individual to culturally higher activity, to awe or wonder and the more sublime level on the spiritual plane of values.  

The work is pragmatic. It is constantly being refined so to be carefully integrated and, hopefully, it will be easy to understand as a thoughtfully balanced, in-depth, sensing-feeling-intuitive piece. One which places humanistic questioning of values at the forefront. It is offered for open-minded discussion as palpable, creatively derived and synthesized, non-conventional wisdom.  

Apologies are respectfully offered in advance, for an approach which is more down to earth will seriously undermine some of the mystique or 'fuzzy thinking' that has sometimes been characteristic of design and of some designers. At least those more tied to an academic conventional wisdom that may well in conclusion be viewed as a mistaken 'head trip'. That would be like seeing with blinkered vision when confined by a single-minded intellect that has been culturally split off, being more in the head, with thinking that is not so rooted in the other instincts, or in Earth and the base animal sensing and intuitive part of nature. This earthy, rooted nature grounds the psyche, allowing an internal separation of spirit and matter for the elevation of spirit, or a higher intellect with conscience. It is integrated with innate feeling and values residing at the core, centered in a very deep archetypal level in the psyche connecting the mind-body totality.  

A paradigm is a set of rules and regulations that defines boundaries, according to Thomas Coon in his 'Structure of Scientific Revolutions'. We see the world through Paradigms that have become accepted 'worldviews' established by authorities. A paradigm shift occurs when you go from one set of rules to another. The shifts that are occurring between our past beliefs and the future vision are called trends. A major shift is occurring in our schooling system as the trend is shifting us from 'IQ' to 'EQ': Emotional Equivalent, or an intelligence with conscience and with compassion. One that is more centered in the human psyche. We have been testing only a portion of the human intelligence. New testing and new theoretical foundations are showing that we have not been teaching that which is needed to develop successful and sustainable living.  

As a society we are cultured to get stuck in our past beliefs. We look for what is safe and secure, even when it doesn't work anymore. We all learn that Gallileo was excommunicated for his observation that the earth revolved around the sun, and not vice versa. And one can imagine how threatening it was for the Europeans, when their belief that the earth was flat was challenged by a guy named Christopher (really It.Cristoforo) who literally toppled their world, the tower of intellect with concepts they had erected. They were really threatened by a paradigm shift that eventually made a major change in their society, and their way of life. As we deal with shifts in our belief system today, we also feel threatened.  

To be creative, to be a paradigm shifter, or to experience it after it has happened you need to have one foot out, so to speak, to see the boundaries that you have taken upon your ego, to think beyond or 'out of' the little box which contains it. 'The view of the paradigm is emerging as the role of the individual's consciousness, that the inner experience of individuals, such as intuition, emotions, creativity, and spirit are vastly more important than the world of the senses alone' (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions). 'To survive, the individual must become infinitely more adaptable and capable than ever before', as Alvin Toffler said in his 'Future Shock'.  

The greatest paradigm shifts will occur from within. All things being considered outside of ourselves, finding our power from external sources, and not seeing the power within will drive us to the need to know ourselves and discover our own personal power. And it is as Einstein said: 'The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them'. It leaves us with only one conclusion: So change the way you think and that will change everything.  

Chi disputa, allegando l'autorita, non adopra l'ingegno ma piutosto la memoria.  
Whoever refers to authorities in disputing ideas, works with his memory rather than with his reason.

Leonardo da Vinci  

Reader beware! What is addressed here is a paradigm shift encompassed by natural philosophy of the 'Ancients'. Leonardo discovered it in becoming one of the first modern natural philosophers. He worked with an intelligence greater than encompassed by those employing thought and memory alone dependent on libraries, being more in the head, in isolation from intuition and from values that may be innate and therefore universal in nature. Leonardo's "courage was rewarded by an abundance of cognitions and anticipations", as Sigmund Freud wrote, and "since the Greek period he was the first to investigate the secrets of nature, relying entirely on his observation and his own judgement".  

In retranslating scientific abstractions into concrete personal experiences one may observe, as Freud did, it may be said that the 'Ancients' interpreted in modern terms of patriarchal authority only correspond to some aspects of the father, (father archetype of the 'Wise Old Man', Jung would have argued) and nature, including Leonardo's own inner nature, again became the tender mother (archetypal, nurturing 'Earth Mother', according to Jung, again). It is the mother principle that would have been constellated within who nourished Leonardo's creativity, in Jung's wider and deeper understanding based on his own inner philosophical journey encompassing both the human soul and spirit. Had Leonardo, an illegitimate son, not been deprived of his actual genetic father and the more limited patriarchal view for a short time in the first years of his life, such creativity constellated within may not have been possible. In most human beings growing up in patriarchal society today, the need for authority is so imperative that their world becomes unsteady and fearful when that authority is threatened. Interestingly, the view here on Leonardo da Vinci is supported in a book on the New York Times and Toronto Globe and Mail, 2003, 2004 and 2005 bestseller lists for fiction, a well researched, historical document based novel: 'The Da Vinci Code' by Dan Brown, a work of pure genius. It is a riveting, intelligent, mystery thriller about a mind-bending code thought to be hidden in Leonardo's works. It offers what may be an astonishing truth about the sacred feminine that has been concealed for centuries. It has captured the imaginations of millions of readers and stirred up controversies and consideable academic debate. This has been summerized in another book sorting out fact, informed speculation and fiction, presenting the views of the experts from various fields, many of whose works Brown relied on himself in developing his intriguing story. This book also made the New York Times bestseller list: Secrets of the Code: The Unauthorized Guide to the Mysteries Behind the Da Vinci Code, edited by Dan Burnstein. One of the more compelling papers from the Gnostic point of view -- and a viewpoint of ideologically committed feminist scholarship -- is by professor Karen King of the Harvard Divinity School.  

One refers to the 'Music of the Spheres' and design implications meaning, literally and figuratively, creative integrations produced from the workings of both hemispheres of the human brain, in a more harmonious balance than in a typically, left-brained thinking approach. Such an integrated intelligence may sometimes be projected outward in metaphor, or it may be mirrored by being introjected from without as well, if that is your view. Ever wonder why the unconscious craze for all those climatologically and flat terrain-made unnecessary, 4-wheel drive, gas guzzling SUV's on our urban streets... think of it, symbolically, as something mistakenly extroverted and concretized in the outer world, which needs to be internalized in the form of psychological growth and development of Jung's 4 psychological functions, identified by the ancients as the the 4 elements, 4 humors, 4 seasons, 4 cardinal directions, etc. We may say the harmony (including a balancing of the fourfold functions) is in tune with the vibrations of the 'Celestial Spheres' resonating to The Music, the mysterious and synchronistic spiritual forces within the human body emanating from the inner Self. Moreover, there are intuitive and other contributions stemming from the older and lower limbic brain with important archaic connections through the body. The body is like the foundations of the house which are a symbol for a centering in one's true Self. Such 'foundations' ground mind in the instincts which connect us with Earth, with nature's nature, as the source of all wisdom in the higher sublimation attainable to humankind associated with the eternal ground of our very being in-the-world. For an update on the findings of modern brain research, however, the reader must go elsewhere as suggested in other chapters.  

This ongoing work is an attempt to supplant by way of injecting substance below the foundations laid on soft or shifting subsoils, as if to right an outworn controlled view of the world which leaves us with the imperative to solve a great riddle in cultural history. It is a paradox symbolized by a dangerously leaning ivory tower, of intellect, from which the view became distorted over time. It became increasingly difficult to experience universals and the rediscovered wisdom of the Ancients -- looking upon the cardinal directions in landscape -- with reference to grounding the psyche with a centering in the self, allowing an ego-consciousness in basic principles that the 4 directions stood for, philosophically in metaphor, at the archetypal level of the foundations in the human psyche.  

Whether the work evolves further into printed publication remains to be seen. The foundations for the task seem to have fallen into place, and a framework of understanding is emerging from an accumulation of life and library experience and from within, bubbling to the surface out of waters of the seas of the unconscious, a metaphor for the wellsprings of creativity.  

The work requires being of 2 minds, so to see and integrate the reality of two viewpoints, inner and outer landscapes. It must also reconcile and integrate evaluational opposites on an axis, with thinking and feeling at each end, forming a north-south, or 'up' and 'down' polar arrangement with thinking at the top. There is a perceptual axis, with the 5-senses and intuition at each end, on yet another plane superimposed to form a horizontal, west-east cross-axis, from left to right, respectively. This cross-axial, quaternity arrangement provides a conceptual framework for us to bring the whole question of value and values into a holistic framework for design and for design education.  

For reasons which may be apparent, this biaxial configuration is a difficult cross to bear, or to find oneself stretched upon, particularly where the initials I. N. R. I. may appear (Iron Nails Run In!). Or, where the feeling end of the pole is the extended, bottom end of the cross, planted out of sight (out of mind) below the ground level. One needs to look at the whole thing positively and mythologically -- with awe, respect and a good sense of humor -- keeping a well-known, supposed historical event in perspective. One needs to keep in mind it is an inner journey that accompany's the life of every individual. It is, however, more pronounced in creative people, and it is part of the mythical foundation of our very existence. It has to deal with the little ego-box, and being able to 'think out of the box', as if to stand with one foot outside with a receptivity toward the unknown. It refers to a sequence of psychological deaths during our lives, followed by rebirths, as we allow our 'view of the world' to transform itself to encompass self knowledge, including the landscape which lies within, the inner realm of the mind and the interdependencies between inner and outer landscapes. The cardinal rule here is there can be no rebirth, no Renaissance, unless it is first preceeded by a death to the ego's previous concept of conventional wisdom, its paradigm, its worldview. 'Letting go' is quintessential to all originative-creative process... from origins.  

Perhaps there is a better image to illustrate this transformative, creative principle, which calls upon us to discover and bring new knowledge into life, more consciously, with a rebirth, or 'renaissance', following a death to the little ego box -- to be able to think out of the box, so to speak -- a better image than the one signed by a male figure nailed to the cross. This is not simply 'male stuff', as it also represents the animus, or inner masculine principle in the female. For designers, a preferred image may be Leonardo's 'Vitruvian Man', the Renaissance icon for 'Uomo Universale', or Universal Man. You may recall this figure, drawn with arms and legs outstretched, in 2 positions, one wider than the other, within the circle and the square. Perhaps it is a better myth to live by. It may be a myth less fraught with ups and downs in life's living! More will be said about da Vinci's projection of Uomo Universale, and illustrated, in later chapters.  

The inquiry requires the subject be circumnambulated, more in an unfolding, spiralling motion touching all of the bases -- describing the breadth and depth-diversity of discovery experiences -- not to lose a sense of eros or 'warmth', or of feelings resulting from perceptions made with both feet on the ground including insights involving hindsight and foresight. Much of this would have been sacrificed in an easier to ecapsulate, more linear, academic-intellectual writing style that, frankly, reflects a linear thought process that is as arid, slow moving and cold as the glacier. Boring. It often misses the 'quintessential' (think of the sculpted/pollarded quinconce, consisting of a canopy with 4 trees on a square plan and a fifth which is centered), with an appealing, prescious and numinous, lively quality very difficult to name, like that of a luminescent and numinous pearl reflecting the holism of universal wisdom in a kernal of 'veritas', the truth, often found in the inner beauty and value that has arisen from the irritations or trials, the afflictions and oppressions of life. Finally, if it is to be useful, the inquiry must go into the reality of an archetypal world that is at once subjective and objective. It lies beyond the literal world of the academic landscape research dimension and the objective limits of the good work which has been done over 35 years in the area of statistically verifiable behavior observation.  

In today's research context it must bring forth and integrate into a holistic perspective the other side, the seemingly more irrational and subjective, but inherently objective reality of the psyche, the inner landscape of the soul, depth psychology and the archetypes, reflected in primordial images inherited by all, the original model and the prototypes which modern psychology of the Twentieth Century demonstrated motivate human behavior.  

It has taken many years for the scientific world to recognize archetypal psychology owing to its partial roots in the philosophy and metaphysics of the Ancients, in mythology including religions, and in alchemy and mysticism from medieval times, all of which Cartesian science eschewed. But modern research on the human brain and the evolution of consciousness has paved the way for a wider acceptance of the existence of the non-rational part of the human psyche, and the simple fact things do happen which cannot be explained, rationally. They are part of a great Mystery about which all we really can say with certainty is, "I don't know." What we do know is the non-rational aspect of human behavior accounts for far more than 50% of a supposed left brain/right brain, rational/non-rational equation. We no longer can look the other way in research and education pretending it doesn't exist any more than we can avoid the reality of human intuition and feeling.  

The non-rational part of psyche is between the body and the unconscious and it is called the liminal world, from the Latin, limen, meaning threshold. This is where your creativity comes from, including the products of synthesis in purposeful design. It is found in the places between sleep and waking, where the veils between the world thin. This happens in moments of synchronicity, lucid dreaming, or when time slows down, when we become less focussed, intellectually. Art, music, sports, meditation and a silent form of therapy using sandplay with various materials, including the actual elements of earth, air, fire and water, have been found to open the doorway to access this place between your body and your conscious, in the deep well from which your dreams also appear.  

It is the place the rational mindset may block, as it is cultured in 'schooling' more based on Cartesian thinking, with a tendency to shut out the work of creativity which tries to enter into consciousness. When our creativity gets stuck, when we refuse to move forward in life and into ever widening consciousness, it may bottle-up under increasing stress thus demanding our attention. Ignoring it may lead to neurosis or depression, with a hidden informative purpose or agenda, or worse if continually repressed, to psychosis and/or to physical illnesses to which one may be genetically predisposed. It is as if creativity and consciousness were programmed by some sort of internal biological clock which functions in each individual, signalling a need for the conscious ego to take another step forward in an ever widening and more complete and instinctively balanced view of the world. Grave illness and stress can suddenly open the door between these worlds to reveal hidden messages about our mind-body connection and our archetypal interdependencies and relationships between the inner landscape of the psyche and the landscapes of the external bio-physical, social and cultural world.  

Looking at it more positively, this liminal land may be compared with the place between high tide and low tide on the oceans called littoral land. We each have a place like the littoral land, a tidal shoreland place between the sea and the land where the waters ebb and flow. It is here as it is with the tides where we follow the moon, not the blazing sun of the "I", but the softer lunar glow if the "i". In this place we become more 'down to earth' in outlook and more respectful of 'the small', beauty and our humble place within nature, of being 'a part of nature', as opposed to being 'apart from', or removed from 'it'... nature's nature. We are not as rational here in this place between. Perhaps you already know of this place between your body and your unconscious. It is the deep source for the 'wellspring' from which your creative images and ideas may come streaming in, when receptive to spontaneous fantasy or, perhaps, in a slightly more actively guided imagination.  

The creative wellsprings connect when we feel safe, secure, centered and stimulated, being more contained, within socially non-judgemental and biophysically receptive and nurturing, 'good enough' environments. They would include many natural environments, the sympathetically designed home or classroom, indeed, any cultural form radiating the 'Music of the Spheres'. These environments have certain qualities of receptivity, of 'warmth' and of liveliness characteristic of positive, experiential, archetypal patterns, densely layered like the metaphors of the poet in poesis, but in 3-dimensional architecture or landscape/townscape. In environments that are safe and nurturing a receptive, 'here and now' frame of mind is constellated. When we are centered in such places, our creativity can flow more naturally like the stream, as we relax and 'let go' of calculative, manipulated thinking, in freedom, in more originative design process, or through meditation.  


The reader may note from the biographical sketch on the previous 'GUIDE' page the author's landscape architecture professional and academic career was something of a success in the 'outer' world. Yet it was not without a certain unrest in the 'inner' realm of the psyche and the body. I learned a painful lesson. Looking back, it may be of some value to others needing to overcome stress in the workplace before it reaches epic proportions in life-threatening situations.  

The pressure of the academic workplace on me to repress subjectivity and creativity, to produce quantities of publications and statistically derived research, and to conform to a profession increasingly taking a more calculative planning/design approach and a narrower and falsely 'mechanistic' view of the world caused considerable stress and dis-ease. Too much stress over time may lead to serious body symptoms and to disease.  

I developed colon problems which became more serious over the years. The path had been traveled too long on a route leading to symptoms just before onset of cancer, predictable medically, but earlier suggested by dreams containing messages of truth not to be ignored. Dreams are incapable of falsehood, offering guidance as to future decisions and are sometimes a better basis for decision-making than reasoning. They occasionally point awareness to illness developing in parts of our bodies. Western man relies too heavily on rationalism and if one does not open to this other side with respect and trust when it presents itself, one very well may get done in.  

Cancer on the Zodiac is the sign for the crayfish or CRAB, a creature of the waters dwelling inside its protective shell. Its movement is not linear, as it seldom goes forward directly. It tends to move sideways in a circuitous, encircling or spiral fashion. And it can reverse very quickly out of harm's way. Cancer is also a lunar sign, signifying self-withdrawal, introspection, sensitivity, shyness and perserverence. These are characteristics of introversion, a mode of psychological orientation where the movement of energy is toward the inner world. It is the opposite of extraversion where the movement of energy flows toward the outer world.  

In the spirit of the waters we may see a quality of inwardness and internality. It reminds us of the beginnings and prefigurations of rebirth in seed and egg wrapped in shell, or womb of protection identified with the maternal archetype and all that implies. It would be the large -- receiving, enfolding, sheltering, preserving, protecting -- engendering what is small. It is the female principle of generation and conservation of life, including everything from the womb to Mother Earth and the depths, the abyss, wells, caverns, grottoes, oases, enclosed gardens, pots, shelters, houses, churches, piazzas and towns. It extends to the great refuge, the sanctuary of mankind, the Mother Goddess. It associates with a pallid, earth-lit moon, a planetary symbol of the womb-principle of the unconscious, universal soul and of the dimmer light of the mineral and vegetable world, of life forces and resources still uncontrolled by reason. The 'Music of the Spheres' is Cancer's score in which the bars call not for rest, but for sounds which imitate the relaxed and murmuring melody of dusk, or the dreamy songs of twilight.  

On the positive side then, in our 'Astrological Houses' of personality, the Cancerian aspect evolves through receptivity to every aspect of what this means through nourishing the sensivity of the child's soul in a good enough, maternal environment. In parenting and in formal education it involves nurturing various aspects of the developing personality of 'the individual', including stimulating the growth of the imagination in a world of romantic, fantastic and lyrical subjectivity, memories and dreams.  

The disease Cancer is a symbol of what is not positive, what may go wrong with denial of mythical roots and with too much objectivity, control, negativity, repression, or attack against the subjective and imagination. Cancer is also a symbol for 'the devouring mother', an unconscious complex or attitude which sometimes prevails in our society, our culture. This unfortunately negative aspect may be described as the false-self mother in a society cultured with a patriarchal attitude which does not embody the real masculine, the Logos.  

The masculine principle grows upwards like a plant on a rhizome, on a firm foundation rooted in nature, Mother Earth and the Great Goddess, or Gaia principle from a mythical viewpoint. The 'terrible or pushy mother' instils within those affected a fear toward anything which may be unknown, especially what still lurks below one's awareness level in the unconscious, like the greater mass of an iceberg below the oceans's surface. This may include aspects of psychological awareness of the reality of our own inner life and the unconscious, the human growth or maturing process, soul and spirit, emotions and feeling, intuition and creativity. As the negative forces attack spirit, they eat away at our own sense of well-being, ultimately, the physical flesh, organs and bone of our bodies... when a part of our personality or being has become out of harmony with our wholeness, our wellness.  

It was as if I was having trouble digesting the fact that my required 'professional persona' or face differed greatly from the inner landscape architect and the person who was the real me. When one is not aware that one's public and professional persona, or mask, is so different, so dissociated from one's integrity, one's whole balanced inner personality, or truth, it is cause for neurosis. And it may develop further in body symptoms, including physical illnesses to which one may be genetically predisposed... the stroke or heart attack at 50, cancer, etc.  

The truth is... one of the best things one can have in our western, highly extroverted lifestyle is a neurosis. It is part of an early warning system between psyche and soma, or mind and body. And providing one works on it and gets the message coming from liminal land, one finds the way forward -- to round out consciousness in a more balanced view of the world -- with a receptivity to the introverted side of life and the existence of soul and of the imaginal landscape which lies 'within'.  

I saw several friends or colleagues die, sadly, rather young around or just after midlife. It included a former University of Guelph President, who had moved back to the University of Toronto where he had once been Provost to become President there. He was a distant relative being one of the last of 2 males with the same surname descendent from a family from Queenston Ontario where my own grandfather was born. The family roots go back to English (Northumberland Forsters), preceeded by Flemish origins, in A.D. 640, with the naming of the First Great Forester of Flanders. Others I knew who died rather young were colleagues more closely allied with the creative design professions.  

In dreams I obtained a sort of Promethian foresight on these calamities, sometimes years before they actually happened, with insights on the meaning eventually being revealed. It became apparent from an understanding of psychological projection, or mirroring, in order to see it 'out there', there would have to be potential for it to happen in some way 'in here', in my own body. It thus pointed to the fact I might be next, that I too could die prematurely if I didn't 'get the picture' from this strangely indirect, imaginal medium which in itself was the message... to be assimilated more with intuition and with feeling. I learned from these insights into the workings of 'Nature' that I had to come to grips with the meaning of inherited predispositions to be diseased in certain ways and that illness is no isolated occurrence, that 'Nature' lets us grow as a species only by saddling us with 'illness' in order to check 'success' in an overly materialistic way. If we do not have illness we are not likely to become very conscious individuals, and if anything, we need to want to live with it, even to love one's own illness as oneself. Consciousness itself, including a reflective conscience, would seem to be the ultimate purpose of life to which all of creation has strived in the great chain of evolution from the simplest forms to plants and animals to modern humankind.  

It is an aspect of a chimera-like quality of human existence that our optimistic, positivistic and superficially cosmetic modern age has refused to accept in its scientific determinism, that symptoms and health as such are only a secondary concern. Illnesses and diseases and personal ordeals in life, experientially, may be essential to the meaning of life itself and only with such pathology or tough times dealing with elements of society comes 'soul'.  

Hence the need for 'soul doctors' to help us culture our relationship to our genetic code. It seems that what gets labelled as 'the occult' today is everything that used to be called culture by the Ancients and heremetics in the so-called 'Hippocratic Collection' founded on such beliefs as the imaginative process involved in their medicines and healing practices was the secret of health. Today, we don't take the imaginative process very seriously referring to it merely as the 'placebo effect'. The establishment has difficulty accepting a darkness of shadow that exists beneath human life, faced with a business-as-usual attitude, only wanting to hear cheerful, superficial news in a world that demands only to be 'cured', that is... of a symptom appearing merely on the surface of things. Who has ever asked him or herself: 'Now, what is the meaning of my getting this affliction? What can I learn from the symtoms? Is there something from associations at the symbolic level that may give me some clues?' It would not necessarily always be the case, but sometimes, when one finds oneself falling onto the right track in a forward moving inquiry the symptom may simply go away, or until one gets stuck once again or may lose the thread or a mythological and timeless connection with some avenue of internal-eternal truth.  

If this sounds a little being under the influence of someone like Marsilio Ficino, the most important writer in the Florentine awakening of the Italian Renaissance, Cosimo de Medici's chosen head of the Firenze Accademia named after Plato's own school in Greece, well it is. But the independent-minded person is a Maverick who would not submit to any 'system'. I discovered the Florentine in Charles Boer's fascinating translation of Ficino's Book of Life, a long-suppressed Renaissance work on health, demons and the practical life.  

Ficino was acclaimed in his own lifetime as the inspiriting force behind some of the greatest poets and artists, philosophers and statesmen of the era. Cosimo declared him a "doctor of souls" and the Medici consulted him for help as their resident "archetypal"-- a word used by Ficino himself for therapist. He was the teacher of young Michelangelo and young Botticelli at the Medici-loaned little villa at Careggi, the home of the Florentine Academy which became the meeting-place for artists and philosophers as well as for bankers and statesmen of the Medicean empire.  

It's been said Marsilio Ficino was the founder of modern Archetypal Psychology as he crossed the boundary between the conventional Christian religion of his day and the study of antiquity with a new way of looking at religion based on Platonic enlightenment. He returned with a new perception of Christianity, having crossed into the area Carl Jung would have called psychology, then reconverted to Christianity with a new perception of it. Both of these men braved the storm of quarrels arising from discussions of images and the power of the planets within over human will, and the legitimicy of ancient magic and astrology.  

Joseph Campbell, a well-known mythologist, was another big influence on my awareness, through his books, on film, and in a lecture/seminar workshop with him. The American PBS/PRI broadcaster Bill Moyers interviewed Campbell in a film series which was seen by forty million people when it was shown the first time on television in the 80's, and it has been aired many times since. It is entitled The power of Myth, also available on videotapes, DVDs and CDs, and in book form (a Doubleday-Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis project).  

Joseph Campbell believed it was important to live life with a knowledge of its mystery and one's own mystery and that all myths deal with the transformation of consciousness followed by trials -- "it's no longer this, now it's going to be that". And the hero is one who gives his life to, or gets thrown into something bigger than himself where he has to say 'Yes', or 'No' to the serpent which means being alive in the adventure. The snake in our dreams and mythology is thus positive, like throwing off an outworn attitude or life for another, as the snake sheds its skin. The real enemy is the dragon who represents greed -- building oneself inside the little ego box -- the dragon cage. Consciousness, then, is energy, the energy of simply being alive. Consciousness animates our spiritual being in the experience of life which is the experience of timelessness and eternity in the 'here and now'.  

The priviledge of a lifetime is being who you are

Joseph Campbell

Fraser Boa, who was a Zürich-trained Toronto Jungian Analyst, made a less widely viewed film series with Campbell entitled, This Business of the Gods, on which a book of the same name was based. He credited Campbell as probably knowing more about mythology than any other scholar in his field, making it contemporary, colloquial, conversational--even jazzy. The following 2 Campbell quotations from the book/ Windrose films production helps frame a context for much of what follows:
"Gods are personifications of the energies that inform life--the very energies that are building the trees and moving the animals and whipping up the waves on the ocean. The very energies that are in your body are personified by the gods. They are alive and well in everybody's life."
"In our Western religions our whole mythology is read as historical facts which never took place historically at all. And that's why, when people realize that it couldn't have taken place, they lose their faith and their religion, and then they're without the vocabulary of the spirit."

The secret of all suffering is mortality itself, which is the prime condition of life.

Joseph Campbell

The only true wisdom lives far from mankind, out in the great loneliness, and can be reached only through suffering. Privation and suffering alone open the mind to all that is hidden to others.

Igjugarjuk, shaman of a Caribou Inuit tribe in northern Canada

The guiding thrust of Joseph Campbell's work was to find the commonality of themes in world myths' pointing to a constant requirement in the human psyche for a centering in terms of deep principles. He talked of it not as being a search for the meaning of life, rather for "the experience of being alive", that mythology was "an interior road map of experience, drawn by the people who have traveled it". It was the song of the universe, the Music of the Spheres--music we dance to even when we cannot name the tune. When one listened to him as many did, one felt in one's own being a stirring of fresh life, the rising of one's own imagination as one's soul became animated while opening to a new way of seeing. He said that all our images for God are masks signifying the ultimate reality that by definition transcends language and art. A myth is a mask of God too--a metaphor for what lies behind the visible world. All of the mythical traditions call us to a deeper awareness of the very act of living itself.

Bill Moyers noted the unpardonable sin in Campbell's "book" was the "sin of inadvertence, of not being alert, of not being awake". Moyers wrote of Campbell:
"It was, above all, the authentic life he lived that instructs us. When he said that myths are clues to our deepest spiritual potential, able to lead us to delight, illumination, and even spiritual rapture he spoke as one who had been to the places he was inviting others to visit."  

One of his books was The Hero with a Thousand Faces, and Joseph Campbell has been described as a man with a thousand stories. He was very learned on the vast sweep of our panoramic past, moreover he knew a story is the best way to tell it. He danced to the Music of the Spheres.

The real humanity of this power field of a man was his gift to us. Like Parzival, "He was not an angel or a saint, but a living questing man of deeds, gifted with the paired virtues of courage and compassion, to which was added loyalty. And it was through his steadfastness in these--not supernatural grace--that he won, at last, to the Grail."

Diane K Osbon with reference to Joseph Campbell

As it turned out at midlife I had my own illness developing, in hindsight, looking at it positively, with the apparent purpose by way of compensation to signal a need to find a vocabulary of the spirit, and a more balanced worklife, less one-sidedly academic, less 'in the head' so much of the time, beholden to a culture with an overly rational view of how the world works. This was later understood as an inner calling to go beyond the depth of the acquired profession in which society and education had merely handed me a superficially mechanical role. It was an impulsion to a more organic and originativly creative approach emerging from within, a true-self 'vocation' with real feelings for values and timeless qualities.  

As I began to move forward, albeit more unconsciously driven in the beginning, I surrounded myself with books. Seminal works seemed to jump off better bookstore shelves into my hands at intervals when I was needing them. I continued studies in psychology and environment begun at MIT during the Harvard years while studying the impacts of the freeway and its environment on driver behavior. I also worked, with colleagues, on another guidebook publication, for the Government of Ontario, Planning for Urban Recreational Open Space: Towards Community Specific Standards, a framework of principles and guidelines detailing human needs as well as ecological considerations. And I worked with colleagues, including a native elder and professor, on a federal government sponsored research publication with aboriginal Canadians, entitled A Culturally Sensitive Approach to Community Planning and Design with/for Native Peoples. The effects of so many decades of forcing a kind of planning 'grid' mentality on indigenous populations which traditionally honored the circle in all aspects of their culture was particularly revealing, as well as being downright depressing.  

Over a 12 year period I spent many evenings and weekends reading and contemplating these things looking for answers, surrounded by nature outside and inside my country home. Instinctively, and by the process of trial and mostly error, I came to realize it was very important for me to maintain a close connection with nature to keep all of the instincts in balance to maintain good health. Later, after a certain point, I understood that nature also meant my own human or inner nature, the psyche.  

'LA FOLLIA'... on the Guelph moraine...

between Arkell, the Eramosa River, wellsprings and Eden Mills

I often read and listened to music, or to cultural and educational programs over the FM radio in the evenings, seated by the fireplace, with my dog and cats in a heap on the floor at my feet. As you can see from the accompanying photo-series, the natural landscape surround rolled up and down and around a hilly, glaciated moraine. There were tree-enframed close and distant vistas to the north and west through a large floor-level window close to exterior ground level on one side of the room. There were narrow windows and doors glazed to near floor level around the corners on either end of this wall, facing east and west for cross-light, ventilation and narrower views, so the room opened outwards onto the landscape. 

Opposite, through French doors closed on overcast winter days on the fourth side, behind the hearth at the heart or geographic center of the house, was a subtropical green wintergarden oasis. It was partially sunk in the ground, 5 steps below, with taller plants reaching upward including winterjasmine vine climbing columns to an overhanging support beam where it formed a lush green canopy.  

This conservatory was under a translucent south-east facing roof sloping down at 45 degrees from 3 storeys above, near the the top of a wall common with the upstairs bath and bedroom, and the kitchen-dining-sitting room area below, over which a shed roof sloped steeply downward in the other direction and over part of the sitting room. The greenhouse roof sloped all the way down to ground level on the exterior south side. The ground continued this slope into a glaciated kettle depression with densely wooded area sloping back up around it and over a hill to the south.  

The house-site relationship and solar heating/cooling effects are illustrated in the cross-sectional elevation drawing by architect and old teaching colleague and friend Charles Simon. He played a major part in our design team with an unusual program combining economy of materials and building envelope with requirements for one third of the house being greenhouse utilizing passive solar energy for heating or venting engineering, with the need to have a fun and delightfully attractive place to live. Our efforts came together in a design synthesis which did attract quite a lot of media attention. With exception of the upstairs master bedroom on a cedar deck partially overhanging the living room, the garden room allowed circulation to various parts of the house on 4 of 5 levels. The house consisted of 3 separately shed-roofed parts which connected at 30/60 degree angles, including the larger main section and conservatory described above and a separate 2-storey studio/guest-room wing built with another partial overhanging deck similar to the main part of the house.  

The conservatory had improved soil at ground level and a European style, combination stone dust and stepping-stone sitting/dining area surrounded by groundcovers and higher vegetation, with a small circular reflecting pool nearby. A mixed groundcover of baby's tears interspersed with ivy spilled over the containing edge around the pool and filled the cracks between stepping stones for circulation paths. A small water jet in the centre of the dark pool burbled pleasantly, rippling circles outward to the encircling bright green mantle of baby's tears. It was softly audible throughout the house day and night all year long, reminiscent of the old 'Cortile' gardens of the Moors in Spain. 

My house was like the maternal hearth with its fireplace at the heart/center. I was constantly surrounded by 'green', or 'nature's nature', year round inside the house, having also long and short enframed vistas of outdoor landscapes with seasonal variation. It really made me feel connected with nature all the time.  

In my teaching, research and community service work I had articulated in modern terms the case for community open space made by Frederick Law Olmsted and others -- with the added emphasis -- humankind needs constant reminders of nature in the built environment, out-of-doors and indoors, to maintain the necessary interdependency and balance between mind and body, or psyche and soma. What many do not see is that it is not just some architects and landscape architects. Much of our global culture -- and many people -- have developed an imbalance between mind and body and between the masculine and feminine principles and the extroverted and introverted attitudes. We have reached the turning point. The entire global village is becoming rather out of body, too much up in the head with blinkers on where timelessly universal values are concerned. We've lost our ability to see them.

F.L. Olmsted was the key planner of Central Park and Prospect Park in New York. He led a whole 19th Century park and open space movement with many commissions throughout the US, and Mount Royal in Montreal, Canada. He had first used the term 'landscape architect', although the roots were more in landscape gardening dating from work in the previous century by Lanceolot 'Capability' Brown. 'Landscape architecture' first appeared, in writing, in descriptions of Brown's work in England. Olmsted was a man with an appreciation for both the arts and the sciences and he constantly straddled these and other 'opposites'. The founder of modern-day landscape architecture had a rare ability, always, to see both sides of any issue, no matter how opposed or contradictory, and this is the test of a first-rate intelligence, as F. Scott Fitzgerald and many others later pointed out with reference to Olmsted.  

Lewis Mumford credited F.L. Olmsted's combination of travel, shrewd observation and intelligent reading as American education at its best, an example of the 19th Century self-invented man who came to his natural calling circuitously, in a natural unfolding process which took several decades.  

Olmsted moved away from the narrow conception of landscape architecture tied with decorative landscape gardening, combining the Art of Landscape Architecture with city planning, urban management, public education and public health. He was optimistic -- albeit guardedly -- about people's ability to appreciate the scenic and restorative powers of landscape upon the sensibilities of those quietly contemplating it. He felt strongly that recreation was obtained merely through the influence of pleasing natural scenery as had been promoted by famous writers. But he felt it was more than intellectual enjoyment which affected people and made them healthier, better, happier. He was no aesthete or ivory tower academic. He did not believe it required a considerable degree of refined culture common only to the more formally educated and worldly fortunate, as had been suggested by Wordsworth, Emerson, Ruskin... a view held by many of today's elitist architects and designers. For Olmsted the curative power of natural scenery was universal and he speculated there was such a thing as "unconscious recreation" with "little conscious cogitation", the present subject of further amplification applying archetypal psychology. 

Olmsted's North American city planning and park and open space movement was based on the premise people needed what we may call 'green lungs' in the city, not just for water supply, but more importantly, for healthy fresh air and outdoor exercise that is also relaxing and 're-creational' with constant and visible reminders of nature. After Olmsted's self-education, which included an initial 6 months traveling in Europe and later other 'grand tours' to study farming methods and see landscape, he eventually promoted 'landscape architecture' as a profession unto its own..  

At the beginning of the 20th Century the first landscape architecture curriculum was established at Harvard, which then produced the first urban and regional planners and, before the end of the first decade, developed another specialization for that profession. Charles Eliot, originator of the idea for Boston's emerald necklace system of open spaces and one of the founders of the Boston Metropolitan Park Commission, worked with Olmsted in his later years. When Eliot died rather young of meningitis, his father, Charles W. Eliot President of Harvard, had seen the importance of their work and the influence of travel in their self-education to gain first-hand knowledge of European culture heritage and precedents. In 1901 he invited Olmsted's son F.L. Olmsted Jr. to create the first curriculum for Landscape Architecture. In 1902 he was appointed first Charles Eliot Professor of Landscape Architecture and the Charles Eliot Travelling Fellowship Award was later established for an oustanding graduate selected from classes over a 3-year period to enable a requisite, minimum 6-month 'Grand Tour' to experience European culture, landscapes and special urban places.  

Enter to grow in wisdom.
Depart to serve better thy country and thy kind.

Inscriptions on the 1890gate to Harvard yard, Charles W. Eliot, 1834-1962

Today, we have a more conscious foundation in research and knowledge for articulating the need for humanity, by maintaining close contact with nature for health, to become and remain whole, to help maintain a balance between all of our human instincts, not merely for attempting to ground mind/intellect cut-off from other equally important instincts. 

I found a natural ambience and solitude in my little home only a few kilometers from the University of Guelph in Ontario, on a few hectares adjacent to hiking trails and a reserve to protect acquifer discharge lands for water supply for the City of Guelph nearby. It facilitated a necessary contact with nature and gave me a feeling of repose and renewal in contrast to the headiness, the pressures of people and the stresses of the modern university. Although I could only get close to it by the end of the weekends, it brought me nearer to instinctive, earth-rooted Natural Man. It gave me a special appreciation for what almost entirely had been lost by the indigenous populations as European culture overtook North America. The native matrilineal - nourishing way of life had engendered spirituality and respect for our existence and that of Mother Earth... and for healing and a male/female balance in the universe. It was diametrically opposed to the fear-based societies of all patriarchal systems.  

While cooking, entertaining, doing the chores or relaxing in nature in the beauty and radiating warmth of this soul house, I got an invaluable education which contributed to a much expanded knowledge. I read widely and listened to great classical music there. I also listened to many of the Canadian Broadcast Corporation's weekday evening 'CBC-Ideas' programs, including a series on modern philosophers who made significant contributions to knowledge. Although some of these ideas were not entirely new, they were 'rediscovered' in the light of a more holistic framework that would soon be changing our outmoded conventional wisdom and view of the world. I discovered the entire history of ideas connected with mythical source patterns originating in the DNA of the human psyche. This gave me a key for joining local life to universal, Great Life, and it provided ways for me to begin to move from outmoded existence to an enhanced life that is at once more deeply felt, more valued and more sustaining.  

I had been one of those restless, creatively driven individuals on the long and lonely quest, seeking deeper knowledge and a certain sense of human dignity and self-worth, having been so daring as to question the 'conventional wisdom' of handed down and taken-for-granted designer traditions that were not comfortable to me, instinctively. It caused me to react asking the following questions...  

What makes the great 'old world' outdoor people places of Europe, and especially Italy, so great? Why? How did they come to look like that? From what Source? Can we become an instrument through which the Source may play its Great Music?  

I was always looking beneath the surface of things trying to see what made them work. And I was frustrated with what I perceived to be a lack of sound design principles grounded in ecology and human behavior. I could find little energy for superficial styles, artifice and trendy fads. All attempts to sell this stuff to students in history-theory courses and design studios would immediately throw me into creative depression, psychologically.  

I recall once being in a Chinese restaurant, in 1982, on Massachusetts Avenue near Harvard Square in Cambridge Massachussetts. I was back at Harvard on a semester reading sabbatical at my own expense from the University of Guelph. I was finishing my meal just as an elderly couple walked in. It was Professor Emeritus Norman Newton from the Graduate School of Design and his wife. He had written the book and taught 'Design on the Land: The History of Landscape Architecture'. They sat down at a table in a booth near me as I picked out of my fortune cookie the little paper, reading:  

"You will go far, but remember to come back."

Well, slowly, I was becoming conscious of a time-honored reality. Creatively motivated people need to go on journeys, although many are not conscious of what is driving them, in order to find The Great Music. It is the 'Music of the Spheres', the knowledge gained in the depths of their own unconscious, which one day, perhaps, may be put to some use to redeem the unseen vision of the higher aspiration inherent in both self and society

Many see this only as a need to rebel, to act out by force, to impose some immediate improvement in the outer world. What they do not realize is the reality of there being an 'inner order' which first needs to be worked on. With exception of a very few extremely gifted people, there is a 'doorway' in the psyche which needs to be opened in order to connect with the internal creative Source, which is like a hidden wellspring.  

I discovered the psychology and wisdom of Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) over the radio on CBC-IDEAS. Jung discovered in each of us there is an ordinary person who has adapted to one's immediate, surrounding world of work and life and the conditions these set for one, and another center attuned to timeless images of being. Our health or well-being depends in large part on how we are able to bring these 2 parts of ourselves together. We fall ill when they are split apart and we can see in our world today a great deal of pain and suffering from this division between the ordinary and the timeless. Ultimately, Jung found certain aspects of Freudian reductionist thinking incompatible with his own direction. Jung became more and more interested in the symbolic life and the world of symbols and images that influence both the individual and the collective psyches. I heard Carl Jung had demonstrated that myths are powerful because they are full of archetypes which are many things... primal forms, codings of the deep unconscious, constellations of psychic energy, patterns of relationship joining mind with body, spirit with nature and self with the greater universe. And they gave us not only our existence, they also prompted our stories eliciting our moral order. Jung was the one who had shown archetypes were the organs of Essence, the cosmic blueprints of 'How It All Works'.  

I also heard interviews with members of C.G. Jung's family and people who had worked with him, not realizing that one day I would meet some of these people. With Jung's youngest daughter, Frau Hoerni-Jung, I would later have tea with a small group in her home in Switzerland, for a series of seminars interpreting meaning from the symbolism of religious Icon paintings from her collection.  

I also met Jung's son, Franz, an architect then in his 80's at the Institute and again on several occasions for tea at the family house on the lake in Küsnacht-ZH, Switzerland. Franz showed me his father's consulting room, library and desk, and the famous, bound leather 'Red Book' journal, which several of us were allowed to peruse at length on one occasion. We were a small group from the Jung Institute sitting on the couch at the coffee table, where we leafed through the pages with the many images and words from his own unconscious his father had drawn and painted, with beautifully lettered notations to better understand their message. This invaluable document was referred to as "the most important unpublished work in the history of psychology". Until 2001 less than several dozen people were reported to have seen it. It was the product of a technique evolved by Jung which he termed active imagination where he was visited by two figures, a young woman inner anima figure and a wise old man which he called 'Philemon'. The sage figure represented superior insight and communicated through mythic imagery. The many images painted did not seem to come from Jung's personal experience. Rather he interpreted them as emanations from the collective or transpersonal unconscious. This oeuvre di vita was finally published recently. It has been celebrated as "one of the most important books to be published in recent memory."  

Franz took me aside, on one occasion in 1985, and talked at length about his father, including how he had happened upon a form of sand play as a successful therapy, personally experiencing a kind of child-like play process which created a balance between psyche and body, while creating miniature villages and other scenes on the beach, just below the upstairs windows of his father's study where we were sitting beside his father's writing desk. 'C.G.' had wandered out the door one day, in complete frustration, after remaining unproductive for a long time and began this absentmindedly. It was under the remains of a large, sheltering tree, still there on the edge of their backyard beach, famous for having been split in two by a bolt of lightening with a loud clap of thunder, synchronistically it appeared, like other paranormal experiences Jung encountered. It happened shortly after Jung died, weakened by illness in old age while resting in bed, having come down with a minor head cold, as Franz told me. Not a bad way to go as the legend came to be known, to whatever happens next, and so in tune with nature!  

Dr. Jung had begun to play in the sand, as a last resort, when his creativity had remained blocked for a long period during a midlife crisis around 1912, when he could no longer work within the limited confines of the sexual reductionist theory of his friend and mentor Sigmund Freud. Jung continued his personal 'sandplay' activity for some time, until he was able to unblock his creativity and go forward with his all-encompassing archetypal framework of understanding. He realized that words and paper and paint and drawing pen were not enough, that he had to achieve a physical representation of his innermost thoughts and the knowledge he had acquired. He would make a confession in stone which was the beginning of the 'Tower'at Bollingen, a substantial 'soul house' he later built for himself. It was near Rapperswil and on the edge of the upper Zürichsee in the Swiss Kanton of St. Gallen.  

With Jung's son Franz, we made excursions several times driving students in our cars from the Jung house on the lake near the Küsnacht-Zürich Jung Institute, for a lunch at the restaurant in Bollingen and to see the stone castle-tower complex nearby. While Franz walked around with the students and talked about the construction of the place and the various things his father made there with his hands, I was encouraged to explore the entire complex on my own, including the turret with his retiring or meditation room. It was usually locked, being off-limits to visitors. I was encouraged to take photos of this room and the other rooms and the frescoes Franz's father had painted on the walls which have not been permitted by others. I was being allowed to do this for personal use in future lectures or seminars on Jung, environment and the inner/outer landscape, with the agreement I would not use them commercially or in publications without formal permission. I had taken along with me, for Franz, a photocopy of a publication from a PhD Architecture thesis by Susanne Crowhurst Leonard I had found in a Berkeley CA bookstore. It was entitled Explorations in the Meaning of Architecture and there was a chapter in it with drawings which attempted to explain the evolution of the Tower as a projection of C.G. Jung's own personality over a period of years and construction phases.  

The handbuilt stone Tower at Bollingen is a 3-dimensional concretization illustrating one of Jung's more important contributions, his Typology of Personality Types, his framework of understanding for how we relate to the world functionally. There will be more on this from a Jungian perspective in a later chapter. The typology is now commonly used in education in the format of the Meyers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBPTI) test for vocational aptitudes. The Tower demonstrates the grounding and differentiation of Jung's own personality into 2 attitudinal opposites of introversion and extroversion and his 4 functions opposed in pairs, of 'perception' in sensation and intuition, and of 'evaluation' in feeling and thinking. The Tower lends itself to graphic explanation for a special picture of Psychological Types, which Jung derived from alchemy, Gothic manuscripts, mythology and various philosophers going back to the ancient Greeks, and by observing the manifestations of the unconscious in himself and in his clients.  

For Jung, Bollingen was a much needed retreat from extraversion and the pressures of family and clients and work life in Küsnacht, a 'medieval monument of tower and smaller turrets, stone and silence inviting the solitude he needed'. It was a place where creative thoughts and images could rise like bubbles from the depths of the seas of the unconscious, reaching back into the centuries, as well as anticipating the future. He did without electricity, hauled the water from the well, prepared the firewood and tended the stove and fireplace, and cooked the food himself. He felt it was these simple acts which grounded a person and made one simple in a world where it was so difficult to be simple and down to earth.  

I felt the silence that surrounded Jung, almost audibly, at Bollingen, where he had lived 'in a modest harmony with nature'. Years later, on another study sojourn in Switzerland I found a room just over the hill from the tower, also near Rapperswil, in Eschenbach SG, with a family who were relatives of Swiss friends in Canada. My daily rounds often took me through the forest on walks through Bollingen, passing by that incredible place where so many ideas had come forth.  

I also met Dr. Marie Louis von France, informally, after a reception organized by the student society at the Institute. She was a close research associate and worked directly with C.G. Jung in his later years, for almost 30 years, and was a formidable scholar herself with an incredibly vast library knowledge. I remembered her voice from the CBC series on Jung. As a multilinguist and medieval Latin scholar she collaborated with Jung in the study of alchemy contributing studies to his major works, Aion and Mysterium Coniunctionis. Her own primary and monumental work revealed the hidden secrets held in fairy tales from all over the world, which are so much a part of Jungian training for psychotherapy. She wrote many books, on fairy tales, alchemy, projection/introjection and the archetypes as C.G. Jung had done. Her comprehensive investigation of the classical theme of the Puer Aeternis is a landmark book in the field of analytical psychology. Exploring the psychology of the eternal youth and 'creative' child within men and women, von Franz explained the adult struggle with the paradise of childhood, and showed how the puer aeternus or the puella aeterna can thwart self-actualization and doom us to unrealistic fantasies and provisional living, and, that once understood, this powerful inner force can release energy, creativity, and personal awareness in every individual.

Von Franz in her books and Jung in what later became his 'Collected Works' amplified the basic patterns in the psyche which determine behaviors and how the world works... explaining that life is allied with myth in order that we may advance along an evolutionary path that carries us nearer to the spiritual source and into greater becoming. Both Jung and von Franz showed us that myth remains close to our breathing-in of life, nearer than we reach with our hands and feet, it is built into our very being-in-the-world. It is not a 'no thing', some insubstantial, abstract fuzzy idea, being as it is, coded into the very cells and waters of the seas of the unconscious, giving access to the DNA of the human psyche, the source patterns originating in the ground of our being.  

I spent long periods in Switzerland for an enrichment that was very inspiring, as Harvard had been for me.
Much earlier in Cambridge MA, several of my classmates and I were able to sit-in on so-called Harvard 'cream courses', including Boston choral director Woodword's History of Music with his animated stomping, and leaping about on the stage with hand-waving/conducting for emphasis, while roaring with exclamations over the audio-recording demonstrations on a powerful stereo system. It brought everyone spontaneously to their feet for a long round of applause at the end of every lecture hour. The entire crowd would then spring out of the lecture hall into the yard with such energy and enthusiasm. Then there was Prof. Anton Seckler, very sedate and almost motionless standing beside slides projected on a huge screen, but no less eloquent on the History of Architecture. It was in the lecture theatre of the le Corbusier-designed Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Corbu's only building in the US. Although our little group had taken the history of landscape architecture in undergraduate programs, we sometimes attended Norman Newton's lively, if bombastically overpunctuated slide-lectures with his 'philosophical outbursts' in Hunt Hall theatre.  

I especially enjoyed Canadian-born (Iona Station, ON) John Kenneth Galbraith (1909-2006) holding forth on economics in Emerson Hall in Harvard Yard, with many insights and humorous asides on the Kennedys, US politics and various Presidents and other world leaders he knew. Our wives occasionally attended as well and, as members of the Harvard Dames, got to meet the Galbraiths and Rose Kennedy for tea at the President's house one day. Professor Galbraith was a very tall man, not just in classroom or television newsroom stature, but physically being 6 feet 8 inches tall, with a somewhat dour sense of humor. Unfortunately, this was not always picked-up by the many foreign students in the class. Our little group would burst into laughter at his frequent wry and humorous asides and political commentaries made while hardly cracking a smile, or when he would turn clumsily with his towering figure, between the chalk board and lecturn, knocking the chalk and erasers and pointing stick, or the microphone, onto the floor. On one occasion the lecturn itself catapulted off its table, knocked over by one of his very long arms he never seemed to know what to do with while preoccupied with Keynesian or other theories. His lectures on the Great Depression were very enlightening, with observations that recessions were like compensatory swings or recurring waves in nature, not really controllable by economists and politicians except, nowadays to some extent, with built-in policy safeguards against the degree of severity. Many years later, with the help of depth psychology, I began to see the compensatory swings in economies on a more global basis and wars between opposing forces, countries and ideas, etc. appeared to be products of the split or imbalance in human nature. The split between the evolutionary Metaprogram hooked up with the DNA in the collective human psyche and directions at variance taken in societal views-of-the-world.  

"But as a nursery for independent and lonely thinkers I do believe that Harvard is still in the van. Here they find the climate so propitious that they can be happy in their very solitude. The day when Harvard shall stamp a single hard and fast type of character on her children, will be that of her downfall."  

William James
"The True Harvard" in The Harvard Graduate's Magazine (1903)

I remember stepping up out of our slightly below street grade, design studio in Robinson Hall onto Quincy Street (locally pronounced 'Quinzee'), late one night around 11 pm, for a breath of fresh air during a dense coastal fog which had descended. I saw Professor Galbraith suddenly appear out of the swirling mists, plodding silently and somewhat stiffly forward under a pool of light cast from a lone street lamp along the brick sidewalk in front of the Fogg Museum. He was bent over a walking stick and was wearing a great long cloak draped from his shoulders. It was like something out of a Charles Dickins setting. A few years later there were pictures in the press of Canada's Prime Minister, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, wearing a similar cloak, probably having been a former student in these classes. It's been said Trudeau never seemed to take much personal interest in the Canadian economy, being more preoccupied with the 'Just Society', multiculturalism, Quebec and biligualism and bringing home Canada's Constitution. As his time fell between major recessionary periods, perhaps it was enough and some of the post-humous criticism may be unjustified.  

The Hallmark of the conventional wisdom is acceptability. It has the approval of those to whom it is addressed.

The Affluent Society [1957], John Kenneth Galbraith (1909-2006), born Iona Ontario, Canada

We are becoming the servants in thought, as in action, of the machine we have created to serve us.

The New Industrial Estate [1967], J.K. Galbraith

One of our favorite educational events was a weekly trip to Boston to explore the urban landscape or a visit to the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. It was in an imported Venetian type palace with a central 'peristyle' courtyard roofed with glass. We would go when not too close to design review deadlines, mid-week, for the free chamber concert series in the Music Room. These delights were followed by casual ambles through galleries filled with original furniture and old masters, pausing always to sit and admire the central courtyard with arched arcades surrounding such a jewel of a green court 4 stories below a glass roof. It was always blooming with life, with flowers, baby's tears and other luxuriant groundcovers dripping with moisture, evergreen accents, and a burbling fountain.  

In addition to the firey outbursts from landscape architecture historian Norman Newton, our local greats included Charles W. (Chuck) Harris, whom many will remember being one of the most inspiring mentors, with genuine warmth and feeling seldom found in academic places, who could see both sides of any question and, with a smile on his face, never let anyone forget the opposite view, even if he didn't hold it himself. Hideo Sasaki, Department Chairman and design critic par excellence was ever so humble, polite and introspective. He was an extremely constructive and wise design critic. He was never short of praise, but delivered criticism with such delicacy and a teasing sense of humor he could put the knife in and twist it, ever so slowly, rendering serious food for thought to bring about the death of an attitude. It would keep you going for days, before finally realizing you had done some rather stupid things in design and, indeed, learned so much more by making and realizing mistakes.  

Professor Sasaki once took me aside in his office and suggested I think carefully before going back to full-time practise in landscape architecture after the terminal degree program. He said I would get bored doing superficial things, even depressed, trying to be a sheep or goat following the rest of the pack in a rather unconscious profession. I would feel like a prisoner of conventional thought doing the same things over and over again, naively expecting everything would, somehow, be different with each new project. Having more rootedness in deeper, independent thought and more willingness to shed the blinkers of conventional ideas, and to see through fads and styles and an emotional commitment with a passion for improving planning and design approaches, I might better seriously consider teaching and research. Instinctively, I felt this observation seemed to fit. I suspect it also mirrored Professor Sasaki's own projection as the very busy head of an internationally recognized consulting firm who had an enquiring mind of his own with little time for academic pursuits. Teaching would be far more challenging and rewarding for one with a passion to improve method, if not monetarily, as it encouraged freedom and independent thinking and involved working with intelligent students attracted to a profession which in its essence encompassed the arts and the sciences.  

I did seem to have a passion for exploration of knowledge and bringing new things to the field from other disciplines. Sasaki's wisdom was astute, but he didn't anticipate my return to a profession, in Canada and Ontario, where people would not want someone around who would disrupt established ways of seeing and doing things with unforseen truths or 'new ideas', or bringing in information from other fields like psychology with all that "personal stuff", seen as shoving a mirror in front of them so they would have to own up to their own 'stuff', in what many landscape architects see as a battle between 2 forces fighting one against the other within the body. Especially archetypal depth psychology, "whatever that bullshit is about!"... the typical reaction.  

It would ultimately cause a threat to others who fear the unknown -- which is only fear itself, an insecurity about their own unknown true Self or wholeness, the inner truth. 'VERITAS'!  

In the final realization, both objective and subjective, a symbolic quest is an effective key to our welfare, for achieving a balance finding also inner peace, stability, wellness and meaning in life. But an established, licensed profession would not easily take that virtuous step away from conventional wisdom, to move forward in more mature, more conscious, less puerile, less unconsciously shadow-dominated creative life. It would mean becoming conscious of the opposites, which lie buried within, ever trying to burst out in strange ways to try to embarass one, or worse to trip one up even more seriously in an illness in order to suffer the 'Fall' in order to focus some necessary attention inward. One needs to be aware of unconscious projections onto the outer world and profession of a 'savior complex' we all have to save our own souls. It would involve the working through of a need to bring about an internal order toward salvation of the soul.  

Ideally, it begins with the quest, a symbolic journey toward the conscious self, before acting out in attempting to manipulate to exercise control over the external world by unconsciously projecting the inner need for salvation on landscape architecture and the Great Earth Mother. It would necessitate delving into and eventually 'mastering' something in both inner and outer landscape, by integrating nature's concerns in built environment with a requisite, functionally differentiated, in-depth humane understanding.  

The following example may shed some further light on the above. A humanities or a science student may suddenly change his field to landscape architecture, or landscape design, as many have done part way through undergraduate studies. Or, some may wait until completing an arts or science degree, perhaps work for a while as well, and then discover environmental planning/design and apply to a masters level, first professional degree program in landscape architecture, or perhaps in regional and/or ecological planning.  

The student's urge to 'save the world' comes out as a need to conserve and enhance nature and to control, reorganize and order society. It can be understood as if it is an expression of one's inner need for rescue and organization. Whether the 'choice' of occupation is a true vocation valid on the outer plane will be discovered as it is lived out. If it is only symbolic of an unrecognized, unknown inner state, it will eventually run into difficulty in the concrete world. The student is more likely to be an effective planner or designer if s/he becomes more aware of the meaning in choice of profession and if the 2 endeavors can be dealt with, in conscious perspective, as being separate but interrelated. For practical educational reasons in society, the student may have to work his/her way through the problem first in the context and form in which it is seen in the outside world. In this way one may achieve a measure of success and verify and strengthen the ego against something concrete which then grounds and prepares one to move forward, to have some voice in the optimum development and enhancement of one's own inner landscape.  

To many people the only comprehensible approach to reality lies in defining everything by means of literal, abstract and impersonal conceptualizations. The symbolic approach can mediate an experience of something undefinable, intuitive or imaginative, or a feeling-sense of something that can be conveyed in no other way as abstract concepts do not work everywhere. The problem is most people have no personal experience in the depths of the unconscious areas of the psyche. The difficulties one encounters in attempting to grasp the symbolic approach are due to the fact that in response to the mystical, introverted trend and the later ecclesiatical obscurantism or preoccupation with alchemy in the Middle Ages, Western development overstressed abstract, rational thought. With the aid of the Cartesian 'thought police' it has concerned itself almost entirely with the practical utilization of external objects and needs, culminating in fact and logic-oriented positivism, relegating to little importance the emotional and intuitive sides of humankind. We owe this explanation partly to Edward C. Whitmont who was until his recent death the leading, senior Jungian analytical psychologist in New York, a man I once had the priviledge of meeting, listening to and working with, in a weekend lecture and small group seminar-workshop.  

Whitmont wrote in The Symbolic Quest: Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology: "Hence the capacity to feel (which is the capacity to experience a conscious relationship to emotion--emotion itself being the impulse, an autonomous force) and the capacity to intuit (that is the capacity to perceive through other means than our 5 senses) have not been given adequate moral value or conscious scrutiny. Feelings are regarded as something which can be dispensed with, intuitions are not considered as something 'real'. This is an approach which fails to help us toward the understanding of basic motivation, for ethos, morality, and meaningfulness of existence rest basically upon emotional and intuitive foundations. These areas may be secondarily rationalized, but mere reason alone never touches or moves them. Were it otherwise the scientists and philosophers long ago would have reformed mankind. We see all around us how ineffective rational appeals are in comparison to emotional ones. Our culture is logic oriented but in dealing with our most fundamental problems rational logic fails to offer us adequate answers to the understanding and living of life.
In our time this extraverted rationalism has gone to such an extreme that it has been remarked that 'not only the occidental Western world but the whole of humanity is in danger of losing its soul to the external things of life'. Our extraverted forces of the intellect are so much concerned with adequate feeding and hygienic care of the undeveloped parts of the world, as well as with raising our standards of living, that the irrational functions, the heart and soul are more and more threatened with atrophy.
Some of the results of this one-sided emphasis are the individual and mass neuroses of our time, with the ever-latent danger of explosive eruptions. Addictions to alcohol, narcotics and 'mind-expanding' drugs also express a search for emotional experiences which in the course of our extreme intellectualization have become lost. But it is not only the drug and alcohol addiction, 'work addiction', the 'manager disease', the compulsive need of always having to do something in order to appear busy, also indicate the inability of modern man to find a meaning in life.
This traditional devaluation and neglect of emotion and intuition in favor of outer-world directed reason has left Western man without an adequate cultivation of conscious modes of orienting himself in the inner psychic world of emotion, ethos and meaning, for what is not consciously developed remains primitive and regressive and may constitute a threat.
Consequently most of our contemporaries have no way of recognizing intuitive or feeling responses, either in another person or in themselves. It is very difficult for today's intellectual to discover a way out of the unbalanced psychic state in which he eventually finds himself, for even the most intense experiences can appear to the 'thinking man' to be meaningless. As James Baldwin put it: '... the occurance of an event is not the same thing as knowing what it is that one has lived through. Most people have not lived--nor could it, for that matter, be said they had died (psychologically!)--through any of their terrible events.'
In the face of this impass it was Jung's concern, and indeed the very point of parting with Freud, to show that intuition and emotion and the capacity to apperceive and create by way of symbols are basic modes of human functioning, no less so than perception through the sense organs and through thinking.
A genuine symbol in Jung's terms is not a freely chosen, abstract designation attached to a specified object by convention (such as verbal or mathematical signs) but is the expression of a spontaneous experience which points beyond itself to a meaning not conveyed by a rational term, owing to the latter's intrinsic limitation. Jung defines a symbol as 'the best description, or formula, of a relatively unknown fact, a fact, however, which is none the less recognized or postulated as existing.' [Elsewhere Jung states] (It) 'is not an arbitrary or intentional sign standing for a known and conceivable fact, but an admittedly anthropomorphic--hence limited and only partly valid--expression for something suprahuman and only partly conceivable. It may be the best expression possible, yet it ranks below the level of the mystery it seeks to describe'.
These definitions indicate that the full range of functioning rests not merely upon the need to answer rational, logical questions such as 'How?' 'Wherefrom?' and 'What for?' but also upon a search for significance: 'What does it mean?' Therefore it is important to differentiate between a true symbol, in the sense of our definition, and a sign or allegory, which are products of conscious deliberate mental activity."  

The latter fall into the hollow category of semiotics, a popular term in some architecture and landscape architecture circles where there is the tendency to 'engineer' abstract forms as allusions to a false spirit with absolutely no life or meaning.  

It is important by way of conclusion then, that an expression which stands for a known thing always remains merely a sign, and it is never a symbol. It is therefore impossible to creatively make a living symbol, and thus one that is pregnant with meaning... merely from known associations. Making the Music of the Spheres is that quintessential task to which we will have to return much later in the discussion after the present 'Foundations' have been cast with some emotion. This is an invitation to come over to the 'other' side as we proceed in the following to see what it looks like from a more southerly orientation, an aspect which is more warm and more heartfelt.  

The prevailing undergraduate student attitude in our overly rationalist system tends to get 'blown away' as the student slips into something like a swamp, metaphorically, in anecdotally describing typically what one hears in design presentations: "In 'my' design I put 'my' 'focal' there in this 'thing' I created", and so on. "Focal what?" one may ask. It is making a noun out of an adjective, for something the student cannot grasp with his/her programmed mechanical design mindset. It reveals an inability for the phallic yang/masculine (regardless of sex) in consciousness to come to grips with emotion and meaning.  

One would rather like to see an acceptance of the more humble position of receptivity and respect for planning, programing and designing with and for nature's nature and human nature. An approach in which various needs are consciously balanced, conscientiously, including emotional 'warmth', meaning and human shelter in terms of symbolic as well as physical containment, along with various other needs of the 'immediate' clients, or occupants, and those of the public or 'vicarious participants' in designed/human altered landscapes, with some notion of the probable impact on mankind's inner landscape.  

In my own teaching experience it eventually proved evident faculty and therefore practitioners would have it that things in the profession of landscape architecture be based on less than one-half of a full deck of cards, so to speak, at best a marginally complete ecopsychological foundation. Furthermore they should remain always the same, even better, that such a base state of affairs be licensed with State or Province enabling legislation into a form of patriarchal, mechanistic stagnation Sigfried Giedion warned about in his 1948 'eye opener' 'Mechanization Takes Command'. The fact that the modern profession's founder Frederick Law Olmsted had an open mind and embraced these 'opposites' seems now to be long forgotten. It is worth noting that many of the more in-depth and informed writers on Olmsted and his contributions to American culture saw his ability to deal with the reality of the subjective and irrational and that these writers have not been landscape architects.  

Charles Eliot III, Professor Emeritus, came to the Harvard Graduate School of Design from time to time for design reviews when I was a student, sometimes to run joint regional planning studios with urban planning and landscape architecture students, on occasion to invite us to dinner or a house party, which other faculty did as well. Our joint regional studio was the first computer-assisted, large scale, land planning study, with Dr. Carl Steinitz also participating, a new faculty arrival from MIT everyone was to hear much more about later. It involved the entire Delmarva coastal Penninsula, east of Washington D.C. and Chesapeake Bay. Prof. Eliot had developed and directed the WPA Program for President F.D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. He always avoided use of planning or design jargon, preferring to speak in plain, very simple English with his educated New England accent. His analogy of the planning process to an automobile with 4 wheels, and don't forget the spare tire (the plan evaluation process) was rivetting. He was an unforgettable, white-haired gentleman, with very thick eyebrows, and he was also of great stature, almost as tall as JK Galbraith with a slightly heavier frame. Prof. Eliot always rose from his seat in the front row and turned to address the entire class in design reviews. He would take what seemed like a full 30 seconds to elevate smoothly from a student writing desk-chair, to an upright position, which caused one to imagine just witnessing, in a small fraction of time, the entire evolution of the species, from the ape stage to uomo erectus.  

On one occasion I had just finished, being the last in 2 days of project reviews, with a presentation of a design for a beach house on Fire Island. The project was brought in from the Sasaki office by one of the partners, Ken DeMay, an architect. It was for his client, a New Yorker musician-composer and among other things was to provide an inspiring indoor work setting, included a workplace seated at a concert grand piano. My proposal for the house was set well back from the shoreline behind the dunes. I had finished my presentation, saying I had put the house up on wood columns, over a deck with opportunity for dining and relaxing on outdoor furniture, in sun or shade, with a much larger footprint for the deck on the east shore side than for the house, with a small, shaded, enclosed entry with staircase and a storage/closet underneath as well. It was... to make it, well, 'interesting'. I forgot to explain part of my conservation and design rationale was for capturing flow-through, cooling breezes and surprise, commanding ocean views on arriving at the top of the stair and from the several rooms of the raised house, without disturbing the delicate dune and grass ecology with concentrated wind patterns swirling sand around a foundation at ground level. I had stayed up around the clock working on 'charrette' for 5 days on the model and on presentation drawings I had done entirely with Eagle 314 Draughting (4B) very soft lead wood clinch pencils. Besides site analysis and design drawings, it included a crisp model of the post and beam house with part of the site and the house crafted chiefly out of basswood. Prof. Eliot rose mightily, and with great dignity for this occasion, and booming with authority as he exclaimed, "Interesting. Good god. A man defecating in the middle of the street is interesting! What in hell do you mean, sir?"  

Needless to say as might be expected, I nearly fell off the drafting stool I had brought to the front of the jury room to prop myself up on, in a kind of stupor from lack of sleep, in an addicted, Coca'Cola-dependent state of bleary-eyed awareness. His energy fired my emotions and gave me energy again as I finished the presentation with details I had left out, then climbed onto my drafting stool, inviting the critics to come closer and look in and through the house for themselves.  

In the design of this house, unconsciously, I had done a head trip attempting to master the art of Mies ("Less is More.") It had cold transparence and simplicity of structure and spaces and white interior walls, although it had some warmth with use of natural wood giving it more the character of a Marcel Breuer house. I had done the Bauhaus thing of Gropius, Mies and Modern Architecture, wanting to create order out of chaos... to the point where there wasn't much interest. It was an exercise in precision crafted to the extent it would be a rather lifeless box, boring for a creative person to live in the place after the initial novelty wore off. I recalled reading Frank Lloyd Wright once said in a Chicago meeting with Mies' about his simple steel column and glass structures, "Mies, if you get any less, there isn't going to be any more!"  

The chief difference between Olmsted and the architects was that in Olmsted's vision of architecture and landscape architecture there is "A place for everything." Frederick Law Olmsted did not want to create order out of chaos, he wanted to accommodate order and chaos in a way embracing both classicism and romanticism.  

The Harvard GSD design project review that day ended, as I presided from the stool over one of the greatest debates our class was to witness among our distinguished faculty and guest critic professionals, as bottles of dry sherry were uncorked and the usual glasses passed around for everyone. We students couldn't have gotten a word in edgewise if we had any energy left or had wanted. It was on controlled order and functionalism v romanticism and the informal and the need to satisfy the emotions and the need for meaning in designed environments. It went on through the supper hour and well into the evening before it ended. We then crawled to our various rooms or apartments to space out, shower, drop onto the couch to unwind then into the sack to sleep, or to come down while listening to music for several days, before regaining energy to emerge ready and focussed to be assigned the next project. I will never forget stumbling happily home through Harvard Yard and down the streets to Peabody Terrace married housing on the Charles River after those reviews, in a combined state of exhiliaration and absolute physical exhaustion. For those few of us who were married in those days our wives got the lessor of the experience. They really saw so very little of us. We were workaholics addicted to perfectionism on an almost continuous 'Charrette', during semesters, from 8 am until midnight, or later. The Charrette had an earlier precedent. It was the small, horse-drawn wooden cart hired to pull an architecture student and his drawings to the Ecole des Beaux Artes in Paris, while the student would continue to work over and perfect the drawings, right up to that last possible moment of delivery to meet the design submission deadline.  

I had the priviledge to be one of 2 LA students on the Graduate School of Design's Guest Lecture Committee. We got to meet our invited guests, dine at the Harvard Faculty Club for informative discussions with them, and introduce these outstanding creative people from the planning and design world. I recall for example, a particularly enlightening day learning about the life and work of Industrial Designer Charles Eames, of the Charles and Raye Eames team of design consultants, who worked out of their innovative house in Los Angeles. They were well-known creators of 'state of the art' films, world's fair exhibits and furniture, including his famous, comfortable leather and wood 'Eames Chair' and matching ottoman mounted on metal star bases. We also had to try to keep ourselves and our special guests sober enough for the introductions and lectures, often after eating the 'done thing' the traditional specialty of the house, horse steak, with liberal libations of good imported wines. This, of course, following earlier drinks and conversation seated informally by a fireplace.  

You will go far... but remember to come back

In Switzerland it was the famous 'source', the C.G. Jung Institute, in Küsnacht ZH, in an historic house set to one side of a walled garden featuring in its center a mandala pattern of rose beds, located between a public pedestrian walkway giving access, and the lakeshore along the opposite side of the garden where there is a small tile-roofed bathing and picnic shelter with an open balcony overhanging the lake.  

In the beginning, I found a temporary room in an old house on a waterfront estate a short distance along the lake, in Erlenbach. It had a wonderful outdoor shower in the garden that could be used even in cool weather. It reminded me of the outdoor shower I had rigged up in an alcove formed by the angle between my studio and greenhouse at 'La Follia'. The Erlenbach estate was adjacent to a small public swimming lido where the C.G. Jung house occupied another waterfront garden on the Küsnacht side of this beach. I used the room as a temporary base while I looked for an apartment closer to nature in the countryside. I bought a plastic, 3-dimensional, colored relief map of Switzerland, where I could identify places with a more sunny, microclimatic aspect overlooking smaller lakes nestled in more mountainous terrain. I quickly checked out several possibilities on the opposite side of the larger Zürichsee, including the tiny Sihlsee. The day I drove there with hiking shoes and picnic lunch for a walk to have a look around the lake, there was a lot of military activity with reserve soldiers in uniform and armored and telecommunications vehicles all over the place. There were military pilots in mirages screaming, careening down from narrow encounters with mountain ridgelines, dropping so low as to practically skip like flat stones thrown at the water surface, before swooping up to disappear over the ridgeline on the opposite side.  

I quickly decided the Sihlsee was not for peace and quiet of mind and drove over mountains and down to the another lake, where I found myself stopping in Oberäegeri to check my topological sheet for the area. I looked up and saw a travel agency sign in front of my car, which still had Canadian licence plates, with 2 smiling, friendly occupants who turned out to be 2 sisters with a list of places for rent. Their's was a satellite from a main travel agency in their home town of Herisau in St. Gallen in Eastern Switzerland. The first place I was taken to see was 'it' -- a ground floor apartment sheltered by an overhanging balcony, in a hamlet of 27 Swiss-owned, older vacation houses and one much older farmhouse -- all surrounded by cows. I also had found a friendly local travel company to find discounts. I immediately booked a flight from Geneva airport to Canada for the Christmas holidays as I could leave my car with an old IUCN friend living in Préverenges on the lake, near Morges-Lausanne area. She would meet me at the airport with my car when I returned after New Years with my dog Flynn, a Welsh Cardigan Corgi (long hair and tail), a very keen herding dog, yet intelligent and disciplined around livestock, for walks and energetic gambling about exploring the herding country surround or mature forest canopy with an awesome cathedral effect on the hilltop above the hamlet.  

The house owners lived in distant Winterthur, in Eastern Switzerland, and hardly ever came to their larger apartment upstairs, being the second generation of the owner family, where the novelty of commuting for weekends had worn off, for a family with teenagers not wanting to be dragged away from their peer group social scene. Someone was needed to keep an eye on the place and monitor the furnace and fuel supply in winter so the pipes wouldn't freeze, and to remove the snow on the walk between the little access road and the front door and a steep drive down to the garage. It gave access to my apartment, the lower in a split level house. Inside, I could park my VW Scirocco, which loved the horizontally and vertically twisting, one-lane farm road network, giving access to this hamlet occupying part of an alp, a sloping geographical bench formerly part of a meadow. I could wander the countryside on foot, or in winter on cross-country skis, or take a book in warm weather and sit on one of several red benches at the top of a pasture on the edge of the wooded knoll with inspiring views over a steep slope beyond the immediate meadow down to the lake below and big mountains in the distance with farmed countyside all around the middleground. I could weed the garden around the house and maintain a small grassy yard full of wildflowers below a sitting terrace. It was sheltered by house and retaining walls with south-facing French doors in each room, which opened directly onto a patio with table and chairs for sheltered reading and dining beside an outdoor fireplace to remove the chill of mountain air between winter and summer seasons, or on those frequent sunny winter days.  

The place was at 1000 meters, above the Aegerisee at 724m, in sublime, alpine farm country overlooking a bowl dammed naturally by a moraigne to contain a jewel of a deep blue lake, far below, mirroring frequently clear blue skies contrasted by white puffy clouds. Above the lake one could see the highest mountains with galciers to the southwest. This hamlet, Böeschi, was on a gentle, south facing slope surrounded by small farms and some very old farmhouse-barn complexes. It is the least densely occupied area in the lesser populated Swiss Kanton of Zug. I drove down, taking care to note places to get off the little paved paths to let locals and tractors with 'honey wagons' pass by, through farmscapes and forest lands, then up again over the nearby Raten pass (1077m). One then descended, crossing a moor -- with 17km of groomed ski trails in winter I could access directly, downhill, crossing farmland with no public road access from Böeschi -- to a local highway over a ridge and down steeply to the Lake of Zürich (406m). One then drove over the causeway and bridge separating the lower and upper Zürichsee, between Pfäffikon and the picturesque vineyard hill and castle-dominated old town of Rapperswil occupying a little peninsula on the far side. I then followed the Seestrasse along the lower lake, in the direction of Zürich, to the C.G. Jung-Institut in Küsnacht, for lectures and smaller group seminars with well-known analysts, distinguished philosophers and scholars from various disciplines and countries.  

I was a member of a little study group of several after-middle-age Americans, Canadians and a Canadian-Swiss woman married to an unusually playful, local Swiss businessman with a rollicking sense of humor who made lots of jokes, as one may well imagine, about our working with dreams, studying alchemy, fairy tales, mythology and religion... and those revealing 'Freudian' v. 'Jungian slips'.  

This couple lived in an old Swiss farmhouse above the lake in Hörgenberg. They had an old dalmation and several cats friendly with my dog. I would move in and look after their place and garden when they went on trips, or to their summer cottage in Ontario. And they would take my dog as a welcome guest whenever I went to Canada or the USA. Al would smile as he mowed the lawn in narrowing circles around our picnic - study table in the garden, in the angle facing the sun formed by their house and its adjoining barn, until we could no longer hear ourselves for the roar of the machine. It was obviously time for a break, with tea and cakes, or a beer or glass of wine, not to get too possessed in our studies. He would join us at these times and at meals, on many occasions when we met at their place to study or party. He too decided to make a Jungian analysis and, in retirement many years later after a few years where they renovated another country house on the river while living and working in Ontario's Ottawa valley, he took up art and serious painting with his new-found creativity. He also founded a gallery at another old house with a garden they renovated and moved into, near the Rhinefalls, in the Swiss Kanton of Schaffhausen.  

Once celebrating a group member's birthday in Hörgenberg, in enthusiasm, Al managed to break the top off a 'Dream Whip' type cannister of real Swiss cream while shaking it, in process spraying himself and lathering most the rest of us as we roared with laughter around the table, splattering also the dining room lamp suspended over the table and the ceiling beams and walls, before he could get what little remained aimed at the cake. We actually had to retrieve another can from storage and clean ourselves and their little breakfast room before attacking the cake successfully. We gathered most Saturdays to work with fairy tales to interpret them, after reading and discussing Küsnacht's famous analyst and scholar, Marie Louise von Franz's books on the subject. We would meet, in rotation, at each of our places of residence, also going for walks and eating a 'pot luck' meal together. When the group came to me, I would sometimes drive to the nearby historic town center of Züg where I would fetch several of them not arriving by car, who took the train from Zürich for a day of study alternating with strolls in the sun -- or in winter, sleigh rides and frolicking snowball fights -- followed by an evening walk under an enormous, dark starry sky, well above the frequently clouded-in Lake of Zürich basin.  

In my first study sojourn at the Institute, 1984-86, I particularly enjoyed a number of lecture/seminar visits by the very well read, articulate, infamously witty and very well-known senior English physician-dermatologist, medically, Dr. Anne Maguire, also a Jungian analyst. She read well-prepared lectures in European manner, pausing for many amusing asides, often describing the astonishment of a predominantly male medical world in hospitals, presenting some most unusual cases combining her international skin specialist practise with her work as a well-known analyst. In one case, she had helped a woman brought to her from Naples, who unknowingly had lost all her hair from a spell cast on her by her mother-in-law from farther south, who turned out to be a witch who hated this woman who took her son away. Ultimately, as she explained, after uncovering the details while working together with the woman on her dreams, Dr. Maguire finally had to fly in an exorcist Priest from the Church in Rome, before the poor woman's hair would grow back. An unusual medical approach perhaps for many people to comprehend, and in one of the largest London hospitals.  

Sometimes there were dinners or house parties, where I was able to have discussions with some of these world-renouned experts, including Dr. Anthony Stevens from Devon England, who had written the landmark book, Archetypes: A Natural History of the Self. He was at the Institute on that occasion lecturing on "The Archetype of Nuclear Warfare".  

It may be of interest to the reader, that after a long time, many of these forgotten details returned to me, creatively, much as old memories and even original information has streamed-in for other creative people since the beginning of the written word, while writing or editing with help from timely hints or clues which came up in my own dream process. This also included criticism and thoughts, or other viewpoints in a kind of dialogue, useful for editorial refinements not considered at the time written, in a compensatory process, where one must also be on the watch afterwards to avoid possible inflation.  

I also had the good fortune on several occasions to meet and listen to Sir Laurens van der Post. He was born and raised in Africa, was deeply impressed by the indigenous people's "sense of belonging", or sense of place in nature, and wrote a number of books and made film documentaries on the Kalahari and Bushmen. Knighted by the Queen of England, he had been an early mentor of Prince Charles, whom he took on wilderness experiences, and he was a long time friend of Carl Jung. Sir Laurens wife, Ingrid, had trained with Jung in Switzerland and maintained a practise in England as an analytical psychologist. Laurens introduced the idea of the "priviledge of illness" to lead one to the gifts of inner transformation. He was a conservationist who understood the deeper meanings of "environmental illness" and believed the universe and the individual are in a profoundly co-creating process and, therefore, the individual has a very important role in rescuing "the forsaken garden" that is nature. Immediately following his final public lecture which I attended at the Zürich ETH University, and which he gave without notes with his usual grace and wit and numinous smile with eyes that fairly sparkled, I had a conversation with Laurens and his wife about a mutual friend with a regional planning background before becoming an analyst. They had mentored my friend and his wife and set them up in Africa as Jungian analyst and Yoga teacher and fellow practitioners of wilderness therapy programs. Sir Laurens had stopped to lecture in Zürich on his final return to his home in England where he then died, peacefully, 2 days later in 1998, on the day before his 93rd birthday. It appeared he had gone full circle, that he had concluded with great humility and perspective his entire life's work in that last Zürich lecture, in a place so near to the source where had been greatly inspired.  

Laurens van der Post always spoke with grace and eloquence, and without notes in his lectures, about the prevailing sickness of spirit that has come from lack of communication with nature in society's modern people, that indigenous, nature-based cultures are relegated to the poorest fringes and nature is regarded predominantly for its economic value. He maintained that people do not realize if you love something it is not really love unless you also serve it... you do not just exploit it.  


In 1986, I met C.G. Jung's eldest daughter, Gret Bauman-Jung. She was age 84 and had been a leading world astrologist in her day, much as Liz Greene is generally considered the cutting edge astrologist today. Greene has written many books on astrology and is also a formally trained Jungian analyst. A morning visit had been arranged over the phone with Frau Baumann-Jung to discuss my astrological chart. When I arrived she had sketched it on one side of a roughly 10x15cm chart-card. She offered tea and cookies and talked about her traditional house. She then proceeded to offer, spontaneously and without any notes, a detailed psychological interpretation of the chart, including family background, Sun sign -- Bull (Taurus), Moon -- in Pisces (also with Aquarian qualities), the Planets, the Houses, and my ascendant -- Lion (Leo).  

In summary, edited from a tape I recorded: " is the problem-solving, feeling type of person (superior feeling type, with sensation and intuition operating more or less equally as auxiliary functions -- concurring with what I had discovered previously from the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator tests -- years later reconfirmed in a Liz Greene 'Astrodienst-Zürich' computer simulation). This type of personality deals with things which can be seen and touched concretely, one who always comes onto the stage bringing soul and earth, nature, landscape and structure into what one does, and something new, giving spirit (especially feeling, intuition and higher thought) to what's needed at the moment". And, as Frau Baumann said, "life brings it that one does something before the world that is new and rather unconventional".  

"When centered in feelings, then something comes that nourishes oneself and others. This energy from the unconscious comes from the center and the Self. It has a healing quality which may be used professionally, but not in the conventional way. One can listen well and take things in, good qualities for an analytical psychologist, and it is good to have that side or aspect too, but one's work isn't necessarily that of an analyst. It can be combined with the profession one already has. However, one must be in an environment where one is in direct contact with one's creative center and with feeling which can be quite stable. It comes more through travel, teaching and being out moving around in nature and the built environment, and with tactile work involving people and nature, with sand, plants and other earth-based materials. It comes together with artistic creativity to put feeling into writing, design and into more gifted teaching, in an organically based way."  

"Unfortunately, one tends to meet and have to deal with people who are difficult to get along with, particularly in the work environment. The march of traditional attitudes opposes one, where many are against creativity, truth and the evolution of ideas and knowledge. And one shouldn't be intimidated by the intellect in others, or be seduced too much by one's own intellect, which is the less gifted side, being the more remote of the 4 functions. It's the function which connects with the unconscious wherein lie the wellsprings of creativity. It therefore must remain always a little bit unconscious, and should not be pushed too much, otherwise, it cuts one off from the unconscious and creativity (our highest instinct), and one can get sick when cut off from one's roots in history, or from work. One would really be sick if one ignored one's past." 

"Because there is a kind of fog surrounding the inferior function, which is positive, one should be able to understand others who suffer. (Note: The fog reflects a slower, more diffused consciousness allowing one to take in information through both the 5 senses and intuition, extraverted and introverted, at the same time, with all 4 functions contributing, so to get a bigger, more holistic picture, with both a feeling and a thinking evaluation of what is going on, with insight into the possible meanings.) Thus through one's own state of being one may be able to influence or facilitate others in their healing, to bring psyche and soma into balance. It can still be combined with previous work and profession. One has to use the mind to make money in a combination of sensing out and thinking. Writing may be one aspect of this which may open doors. But the collective world normally opposes consciousness and constellation of creativity. One must meet the intellectual world with feeling, from one's own center. One's religious life grows naturally in the second part of life looking after souls with feeling, but unconventionally and not necessarily in the professional role of the modern, analytical psychologist-therapist 'soul-doctor'".  

"An outlet is needed for feeling which allows bringing soul and spirit into the world. One takes this seriously. There is a relationship between illness (as I was already beginning to discover), and finding work in special teaching, writing and creative design in a concrete and organic way that is not too abstract. It must be enjoyable, but it must have a mental or thinking aspect, perhaps bringing the opposites of thinking and feeling into the concrete world of reality through research, teaching, and designing educational programs".  

"One thus needs the solitary time to allow things to flow naturally from the unconscious to maintain vitality. (Vitality implies having a refined anima, a Jungian term for a certain quality of being, and of being alive, meaning for a man to have developed a certain quality of relatedness, including a working connection with the inner soul.) Strength in teaching is nourished by the unconscious. Mediumship is an aspect of this."  

Gret Baumann-Jung paused... as she chose this word "mediumship" very carefully, although I interpreted it at the moment less with the connotation of having undergone a kind of ritual, involving a shamanistic initiation. I immediately took it simply as 'mediating', without thinking of making soul connections with what lies below the ground surface, in Earth, the unconscious and base instincts, so to speak, and the surface of the ground where we are in ego-consciousness, and the spiritual and cosmic connection, Heaven. It was explained, and in fact I had already evolved a way to dialogue with the unconscious via the dream process when entering or exiting deeper sleep, or in meditation, where I keep a flashlight, pen and journal at hand to write everything down. I work with the dream contents the following morning to attempt to discover the meaning. I also use the process in my writing and creative work. When it applies to them I may reveal the results to others, but only when I feel they can deal with the material. One quickly learns one cannot go crashing into other peoples' psyches with too much information, too soon or too fast, as it can throw them into an abaissment de niveau mentale which makes them rather unconscious. It is like being flooded in a near drowning experience, in which one becomes too waterlogged for a time to function consciously until the material gets assimilated. It is reason for writing in the present narrative style, one that is circuitous, touching bases with the psychological functions using frequent concrete examples and metaphorical associations. One thus avoids a shorter presentation based on linear thinking that would be concise, but would complex many readers unfamiliar with depth psychology.  

When I ignore the unconscious or misunderstand it, during the day if time permits, I may fall into what Jung termed a minor 'creative depression', momentarily. This signals the need to find the time to relax with a short nap, or to meditate, to allow the unconscious to compensate with another run at the material, perhaps with different images and/or word phrases to better get the picture. The creative depression then goes away immediately, as I have new material and/or a better feeling and understanding of what it is I need to work with. It is often a kind of Gestalt:   'Ahaaa... so that's what it was!' The Eureka experience. What Jung meant by 'creative depression' is a necessary realization of new consciousness through the inner-psyche assisted process of   'Learning by Discovery'.

"Eros and being centered and grounded in the body, aided by maintaining contact with nature in both the outer and inner landscape, thus helps one find the courage for one's own experiment in life and learning. Where one follows one's own feelings, one also gets to the right place." In my case, with a teaching gift, involving working with the heart as well as the head doing creative things. "And, it is very important that one does organic, earthy things... with an artistic quality."  

Frau Baumann-Jung went on to say near the end of the morning, "And then one also is likely to have a gifted child, more like a Saggitarius, who also has to show herself in the world, but with a Taurus earth-based approach to creative work and hobbies, and there would likely not be a brother, but a sister, who's birth sign may be somewhere around Gemini, who is in some position who can be seen." These are facts. Gret Baumann-Jung previously was told very little of my family, personal or professional background, until I gave her information following her statements or near the end of the morning.  

She compared my astrological chart with similar aspects in her father's chart as she advised me to stay grounded and not to get inflated, suggesting, one day, later on, I might find interest to write creatively about what I assimilated from many useful life experiences... from the viewpoint of psychological understanding I already then had. She also said I might be able to make a little money coming from this activity. Perhaps I might bring forth something to contribute on man's relationship with the biophysical environment, integrating the opposites, objectivity and subjectivity, science and art, classicism and romanticism, outer and inner landscape. My chart with certain similarities to her father's chart, indicated, like her father, I had a more uncommon ability to pull things out of the unconscious, to see both sides of the material and to communicate while holding these and other opposites in tension, where many tend to entrench themselves on one side of the fence or the other and get stuck.  

Frau Baumann-Jung finally went on to talk about Taurus being agriculture, the arts and education, then about her father's always needing to concretize the symbol from images rising from the unconscious. She said today's Jungians are too much in the intellect, often fearing the unconscious or not taking it very seriously, personally, and being rather opposed to the 5-senses and being absolutely grounded in the body and all the earth that Bollingen stood for, with stone carving, sculpture, painting and the simple 'down to earth' life. They tend not to get out of the academic intellectual world, eschewing the kind of basic, nature-connected existence that leaves one's hands and fingernails soiled from construction, or from crawling around the garden in the early morning on one's hands and knees, rooting out the weeds. A very polite way of saying many are not well nature-connected, not grounded.  

The interpretation of my astrological chart, summarized above, took place in Frau Baumann-Jung's remarkable, traditional south-facing Swiss home with a great sheltering roof. It had been designed by her architect brother Franz, with a ceramic tiled kachelofen wood-burning heater also connected to hot water radiators. There was much use of natural wood, with multi-paned windows on at least 2 sides of most of the rooms, which were bathed with a pleasant, not too strong, shadow pattern-textured cross-light from outside. It was in an old built-up suburban area on the slope above the lake overlooking the mountains, near Herrliberg. One went up a slope and around the house from the street and entered it from the back on the North side so the mountain-lake view from the sitting room and connecting, South-facing, outdoor sitting terrace was undisturbed. A complete surprise and delight on arrival. The house had a natural rock garden on the slope down to the street at the South/front and a picturesque, occasionally-mown meadow of grasses and wildflowers more to the West side and the rear/North, looking also very natural.  

The idea of 'manicuring' lawns to look like golf greens under a collective 'addiction' to various displays of 'perfectionism' is not so popular in a country which combines practical and beautiful pastoral landscape traditions.  

The Swiss love to see spring and summer wildflowers, or drifts of primroses, crocuses, scilla, narcissus and daffodils in their 'lawns'. Wild marguerites/daiseys and even dandelions are also welcomed -- 'everything, in moderation... including moderation itself' -- in shorter grassed areas around homes in residential areas, which are sometimes kept more like meadows, less closely, less frequently mown. Imagine! And it's beautiful... and the ground is not laced with herbicides or pesticides poisonous to people and animals. The fresh edible dandelion greens may be picked and put into salads or steamed, then fried in olive oil, or butter, as one does with Swiss chard, spinach or other greens.  

A pleasant 6 storey hospital staff residence where I once stayed, in Küsnacht, had some extra space for local and foreign students attending courses in the Zürich region. It had common rooms with outdoor patios at ground level, and roof gardens with planters of native grasses, shrubs and evergreens and decks with moveable chairs and tables for viewing the mountains, stargazing, studying, eating and relaxing in plain air.  

Incomprehensible to many North Americans, beside the front entrance of the residence, immediately adjacent to the hospital complex, was a meadow with some pear and apple trees, containing a small shed and paddocks for sheep to graze. It was maintained by a farm family who had other fields and orchards interspersed throughout the neighborhood. It included this 'alzheimers' hospital complex with garden-roofed, underground staff parking, grassed 'turfstone' visitor parking areas, several courtyards and surrounding green meadows with trees and natural plantings, natural and more formal reflecting ponds, walks, sitting areas with benches and moveable chairs, tables and sun umbrellas.  

There was also a sign at the edge of a farm field along a regional footpath traversing the edge of the forest, further up the slope from the complex. It welcomed walkers and hikers to stop by and enjoy the pleasant indoor courtyard cafe or a meal from the cafeteria. One could also bring food to outdoor furniture in an outdoor courtyard, or to a patio surrounded by plantings, including seasonal color material in beds and planters adjacent to the front door and vehicle turn-around for pick-up or drop-off of patients or guests.  

This mainly low rise 1-3 storey complex with its 6-storey staff residence was planned together with some pre-existing estate houses with equestrian facilities across the little access road ending at the hospital. Planning authorities also had introduced smaller single family houses and multiple housing projects, a school, an indoor sports complex with outdoor tennis and playing fields serving the entire town, a cemetary with a chapel, also used for regular Sunday services, and a neighborhood supermarket. In community planning language this is called 'mixed use'. It also included the frequently encountered Swiss system of 'Wanderweg' footpaths, substantially signed with cast-metal, yellow painted plaques with raised letters mounted on metal posts, at entry/exit points, with times and distances to other places. These paths may traverse protected stream or ravine wildlife environment parks, sometimes where there are interpretive plaques, larger managed forest tracts, and alongside farm fields. One may typically find 'vita parcours' exercise stations with connecting, mulched running tracks in woodlands serving local neighorhoods with parking access for more distant users.  

Farmers in Switzerland often are subsidized, with locally favored more expensive produce in season, over reduced quantities of cheaper imports. The system with price controls protects the rural landscape and the traditional way of life which is viewed as a valuable heritage resource. And farmers (peasants) work by choice, often on publicly owned land with compensatable, ongoing rights to do so. The open space lands may serve as recreational and productive buffers around, or as 'green fingers' within urban developed areas of towns and cities. These lands are also the main source of protected groundwater supply with community wellheads throughout forested areas, well away from manured or chemically fertilized fields. Large concentrations of livestock are not permitted and the number of livestock are controlled by quota systems.  

The forests containing production managed woodlots are interwoven together with farmlands between larger groups of neighborhoods or towns, around and within the 'Zuri-City' region which is one of the best examples. The Swiss like their dogs and take daily walks in all weather in such pleasant surroundings, with well-placed parking access, convenient 'green doggie bag' supply and disposal boxes, and the world-famous 'red benches' at just the right wind-sheltered locations along the paths to sit, take the sun/shade, read or admire the views.  

I got into a very healthy habit as I naturally took advantage of all this cultural landscape on a daily basis. I often carried a book with me on my wanderings, or on walks to and from lectures and seminars. I found I was able to spend more time reading and contemplating this way, surrounded and connected with nature, than sitting in a chair indoors in office-like environments. There, as always, my digestive tract would soon begin to protest, giving me the impression it was like boiling. I was not breathing-in deeply enough, literally and figuratively, while sitting motionless indoors in some of the places where I had lived or worked. Flourescent lights and cold architectural interiors with artificial surfaces, or things treated with faux or plastic-like products made to look like something they were not seemed to exacerbate this problem. I needed the real thing, genuine, more organically derived surroundings and a direct connection with nature and the out-of-doors. It made me feel more at home and closer to the center, in feeling. I was not thinking with sensation, intuition or feeling, not filling-up my lungs naturally when breathing sitting in a chair with blinkers on, focussing sedately with the intellect in a near fetal position. Breathing fully into the lungs, in an in-spiring way, in aesthetic experience, in aesthesis (to be explained in considerable detail in a later chapter), surrounded by the beauty and sound of nature, would seem as if to warm, even physically massage the heart, to activate a feeling of being in awe of new discoveries allowing more of an 'ahaaa!' Gestalt realization response, I would suppose, in learning by discovery.  

In schooling in my youth I got high scores on I.Q. tests, but my grades did not match for the simple reason, understood today, that testing was mainly for intuition, whereas the grades were based on ability to memorize quickly and to think abstractly. I was constantly pushed to achieve better grades, until I reached the points where I simply blocked and couldn't concentrate, or got sick and could do nothing at all. I managed, somehow, with a lot of resentment, until I reached the final year in high school when the pressure combined with information overload caused me simply to shut down, 'space out'. I failed several subjects. I am probably the only one who failed Ontario grade 13 to have graduated at the top of his class at Harvard... once I found a way out of it and discovered subjects of interest to my more gifted side that were also more practical, more down to earth and therefore meaningful for me.  

When studying using only my intellect, my body was not getting enough oxygen into the blood stream, as I all but stopped breathing except for tiny little breaths. For me, the area where the consequential affect was most concentrated was the gut. It was as if I could not study and pump either sufficient oxygen or library information into the gut-sensation or heart-feeling levels in the body somehow connected with parts of the brain where deeper recognition resides. This is where intuition can make connections, synchronistically, in a chance meaningful series of events within the mind-body system. It functions in a timeless way, to activate a research function and a synthesizing process on more meaningful levels.  

Summaries of recent discoveries in brain research may be found on the New York 'The C.G. Jung Page' on the Internet where Jung's 4 functions of sensation, feeling, thinking and intuition and the attitudes of introversion and extroversion are shown to be rooted in distinct areas of the brain. The physiological foundations for Jung's model are thus known and his observations are confirmed as science, providing exciting new insights as well. Other studies are showing that many people -- especially men -- are not using all of these areas in the brain, that many women have a higher tendency to function with the opposites in play, thus utilizing more areas of the brain. Science has caught up with occult knowledge and there can be no excuse for continuing to ignore what was revealed to the initiated in the timeless wisdom of the philosophers since Ancient times.  

RESEARCH... to recover what has been lost

The dictionary definition of research, basically, is 'to re-find, or find again, what has been lost' implying we are born with archetypal source patterns based on an inner order of a more universal scheme of things, which also determines various behaviors. But we lose our innate knowledge at birth only to have to rekindle it through the experience of life, assisted by formal education. Thus, as in the biblical sense of the garden and of gardening, there is an implicit, meaningful order of relationship and wisdom to be derived from juxtaposing and introspectively balancing learning from the 'Tree of Life' from personal experience and feelings, with the 'Tree of Knowledge' from book learning, libraries and thought.  

Education which comes mainly through pragmatic sensation and the rational, descriptive function of thinking/intellect can be somewhat hollow or superficial repressing spirit/intuition and soul/feeling. We need more educated and fuller use of both receptive functions, which are the 5 senses and our intuition. When functioning properly they provide the opportunity for information being taken in to be filtered through yet another evaluative function on the same axis that is opposed to thinking, which is feeling, with its own innate archetypal system of a priori values accumulated throughout the history of the development of humankind.  

In today's civilization teaching and learning which favors mainly the thinking pole on one end of one axis of 2 cross-axes in the psyche may not be very grounded, as certain functions become blocked, and what may be taken-in may not be assimilated within the body or by all of the instincts working together in unison.  

An example of this would be the person who sees only the long term wilderness solution for large tracts of forest to maintain a global balance with respect to the greenhouse effect, or to protect land in circumpolar regions to perpetuate ecosystems to ensure environmental diversity, as opposed to the one who sees only the more immediate need to exploit new energy sources. Neither the wilderness promoter nor the developer may have seen or valued the complete picture, until the resources and the various forces are identified along with their interrelationships, social and physical carrying capacities and special indicator species. They need to be evaluated to see if or where there may be carefully zoned areas, where various degrees of protection and use may meet ecosystem management objectives. It may include the possibility of compatibly managed resource extraction or development, perhaps in specially controlled zones which do not interfere with longterm ecosystem objectives. Narrow or straight-lined thinking needs to be tempered with feeling and long and short term values.  

I was asked at one time to be on a Ministry of Environment Task Force to oversee, and to help by getting together University adjunct experts to fill out the team resources needed, and to contribute to the first Province of Ontario environmental impact assessment on a large scale. It concerned the possible mining of lignite, a more polluting form of soft coal in the James Bay lowlands of the North. When everyone had a chance to make their input, economically and ecologically, it was determined at the time that environmentally sound development and eventual use of the coal would not be economically competitive with alternative energy sources available, or likely to come on line in the forseeable future. A lot of controversy was thus avoided in filtering the possible project through both the heart and the head, so to say.  

With help from astrology combined with dreams, analytical depth psychology and other disciplines, and the 'school of hard knocks', I discovered, thanks mostly to Jung's pioneering work on psychological types and attitudes, my inferior or least gifted side, in the first half of life at least, was associated with the intellect. Consequently, I could think, but it was at times rather unconsciously primitive and 'bull'-headed until it began to take on more and more conscious, 'lion'-like qualities later on. In most individuals the one among four functions which connects with the unconscious and creativity has a tendency to block from around the time we begin formal schooling. Thus in the professional role I acquired in formal education, the employment of the 5 senses and especially abstract, conceptual thinking, disconnected typically from feeling and intuition, was something that could not be pushed constantly to the limit in schooling or profession. There would eventually be serious and, ultimately, life-threatening repercussions in the body. People these days with similar typology can get labelled with various learning disabilities such as Attentional Demand Deficit (ADD) and Dyslexia. There are temporary treatments but they are more for the symptoms and perhaps are not for the underlying problems which may have more to do with psychological types and developing all of the functions more in balance with each other and the fact that education caters mainly to intellect in the abstract.  

The real problem, fundamentally, is not understood on the societal level. We do not realize all this may be a normal reaction to an outmoded educational aproach, that everyone has more or less the same potential. It is education which is partly the problem. Formal education has been constructed on the basis of a rather one-sided approach to teaching and learning which tends to value and present information as if it were in itself intelligence, and the receptive function for acquiring knowledge is thinking. In education we know little of how the other functions work, of the fact that different individuals mature or develop typological functions in functionally different sequential patterns, which may be genetically predisposed, and then become thwarted in education. It can throw the person's whole system out of whack with increasing stress and vulnerability to illness as time goes on. We don't seem to know how the functional types interact in the extroverted and introverted modes either, which are present in varying degrees in each individual, more dependent on genetic as well as personal developmental influences. Moreover, we are not aware of the overall direction in which the human species has been moving, as the brain-body system evolved and may continue in evolution, worsening educational problems, or bringing new challenges and opportunities with each succeeding generation.  

Participate joyfully
in the sorrows of the world.

We cannot cure the world of sorrows,
but we can choose to live in joy.

Joseph Campbell

I was to live in some very beautiful and inspiring places during my 'discovery' years abroad, as I made 'Grand Tours' of both outer and inner landscapes. In the course of an initiation experience to the second half of life, and crossing something like another alpine or continental divide, at age 50, I met up with some happenings in the outer world in my travels which were not very pleasant. After encountering some events in the outer world that can only be described as the workings of evil, with some major shadow shocks to my sensibilities, I repressed any thought of writing, only recently recalling and finding the energy to proceed, if very cautiously. I needed to go far enough down the path to regain my sense of humor and perspective, so to be able to exist, more consciously and with a certain exercise of conscience, having frequent unusual and very grounded 'insights' into the workings of human nature in the 'outer' world. I had to discover how to live at peace, even joyfully, among the sorrows of the world having painfully learned the secret of the hero's journey. One cannot get caught up in a savior complex or push ahead with major changes against anything too big, against the conventional wisdom of society, or profession, etc., except perhaps in some small measure by setting one's own example. One always needs to throw the brick at one's own head first, knowing that in order to see something unsavory, 'out there', it also has to exist, 'in here', in one's own shadow. In the final analysis one only can own and take responsibility to make changes in oneself. And that is where the focus needs to be. Extraverted material life needs to be counterbalanced with the introvert's view and the world within, so the two can work together.  

Taking one step at a time, after I first discovered the depth psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the 'Jungians' over the radio and in a few books, in 1982, I took a sabbatical semester at my own expense to take some pressure off my gut in a friendly environment. I returned to Harvard where I was offered a desk in the office of Prof. Charles W. Harris, who had become Chairman of Landscape Architecture and who had been a mentor when I was a student, Instructor and Research Associate. I began in earnest to read psychology of environment and some of Jung's 'Collected Works'. I integrated my early discoveries in one of the 'bag lunch' lecture series in the Graduate School of Design, 'The Education of Intuition and Feeling for Design'. Later, I discovered and followed the emerging environmental focus of ecopsychology, which seemed to be overlooked by environmental design professions.  

I had begun a long quest, a journey "into the woods", in the words of those well-travelled and personally 'inner' experienced giants of academe, the popular mythologist Joseph Campbell and Canada's Robertson Davies.  

I was on my own personal outer and inner journey into landscapes, moving to the world of the small, which is also beautiful. It eventually took me to Switzerland's original C.G. Jung Institute for Analytical Psychology, a tiny place in size compared with today's large advanced education institutions. It is in the Seehof, a very old house set in a walled garden on the waterfront along the Hornweg, a pedestrian walk giving access to properties along the Lake of Zürich, within the town center Küsnacht ZH.  

I would comment that Jung was known by family and close associates not to have been happy about such an attempt to 'institute' the impossible, in a C.G. Jung-Institut -- in a collective and thus mechanistic way -- a formal, analytical psychologist training program based on his discoveries of an initiatory and a human psychological maturing process emphasizing the uniquenes of the individual. Over time, the program became even less of an art based on organic creative process originating within the individual. It seemed to be becoming more an advanced, technical, university, science- diploma program in controlled, interventional, clinical psychology. This reflects, perhaps, more sinister aspects of a North-of-the-Alps, European mentality dwelling under chill gray skies, in a more one-sided, intellectual culture grafted onto a stem rising out of the Protestant ethic, with a mentality presenting difficulties in letting go, or coming forth with genuine warmth and compassion... in real intimicy and feeling.  

Without an environment which adequately supports a rebalancing of the intuitive-feeling 'art' with the sensation and thinking 'science' aspects, allowing space for balancing the individual's personal typology according to the needs of his/her own psyche, the formal intellectual requirements may have a tendency to suppress and actually delay in its candidates the personal growth process along with a centering in the Self. There is also evidence of possible negative physiological and psychological side effects, while candidates pass over the intellectual hurdles in the analytical training.  

To me, there did not seem to be many people around needing work on their thinking functions in modern-day centers of 'Jungian thought', in these Jungian analyst training programs. It may have been to free up or complete some aspect of their own inner process, perhaps, that many had projected and acted-out in the form of a power 'head' trip, a desire to become a Jungian by learning all 'about' the analytical psychology viewpoint of Jung and 'the Jungians', acquiring mainly external knowledge. It also appeared some were not so aware of this, perhaps, in attempts to will and control their psyches, which may have been in conflict with a fundamental teaching and learning principle, when one contemplates the lessons one may learn from the history of the forces of classicism interacting with romanticism, as both individual human typology and civilization evolved.  

The main principle is that a new order with a higher level of consciousness can emerge from our inner depths and from a process of assimilation only after we are able to let go of the old. It follows a psychological death, meaning a symbolic death in the psyche where we let go allowing a state of chaos to exist. There is no rebirth without first there being a death on some level. The Emperor or Empress may order new clothes, but if it is just a head trip s/he remains always the same.  

If you are a very controlling person it may be one of the most difficult things, to simply let go, to allow the psyche and consciousness to move forward to something more balanced, more whole. There is a huge industry in modern society devoted to the problem. There are various ways and some are more effective and cost-efficient than others. Many do like to hear themselves talk, however. They are willing to pay huge sums of money, over many years in a process that is a very dicey business, where they may be allowing themselves to be held hostage, where 2 people are talking in circles 'about' the unconscious and don't fear they have no idea what they are doing. Mind fucking.  

My psyche was not about to let me become anything resembling an automaton of technique as in the university and licensed profession, again, within the Zürich Jungian scene. I had been forewarned before leaving Canada I would be likely to see through the whole thing immediately, and I would have to swallow hard and play the game, somehow, but go the way of my own process for individuation. This wisdom from a senior Training Analyst proved to be well-founded. The problem... survival... it is a very lonely, time consuming and expensive process, when one has no societal group or professional container within which to fit or play a 'role', as one tries to go it alone in the way of the 'true self', entirely under one's own power, and without external assistance.  

In 1984, I took a sabbatical from teaching and, in Küsnacht, I attended semesters, lectures and seminars, and I focussed on the physical symptom, my gut problems, while waiting to see what the Self wanted from me by way of change. I also made studies on my own in this milieu, during 2 sojourns of several years each in a 14 year period, with the principal intent to deepen the connection between my roots in the Self and to work creatively on my growing knowledge base on the interaction between man and environment, archetypally. I was decidedly and positively ambivalent. If I became a Jungian analyst in the process, out of an inner vocational calling, if it was what the whole Self wanted, and not merely a projection on my analyst, or an ego-trip by a fractional entity of the self connected with intellect, well then it would eventually come from within, because it was meant to be. And, educationally and societally, things would fall into place according to the laws of the universe, with the ego going along and taking command as well. In my view this was not something which could be engineered, mechanically, subsequent to an ego/power trip over the larger psyche. If one thinks of the Ego part of the Self as the tip of an iceberg, and the remainder as that larger mass below water, one begins to get the picture of where the overall weight is and how such things need to be approached. In the end, maturity involves a battle between the Ego and the Self in which the former must 'let go', follow the natural river, in order to embrace the totality of the Self, to be reborn into a more centered and balanced conscious position.  

Seek directly, in what may be seen in the blinding light of the Sun, or intellect, and you will not uncover the Philosopher's Stone or the gold. One is more likely to discover in caves or in the dimmer light of the night reflected from the moon. This was a prevailing message of caution from ancient and worldy philosophers who uncovered the Self.  

Slowly, I brought forth my introverted side to balance a typically North American overemphasis on extraverted life. I attended lectures and seminars and worked with the dream, also for many years on my own, following initiation and training periods with 2 well-known Masters, one female and one male. The first was a Canadian from Ontario, Marion Woodman, a North American Interregional Jungian Training Analyst, now known worldwide through her books, lectures and workshops. It was followed by Dr. Phil. C. Toni Frey-Wehrlin, one of the more respected senior male Training Analysts in the Zürich Jungian analytical psychology establishment, who was Director of the experimental Zürichberg Clinic for many years. He is respected internationally for doing the seemingly impossible, having cured a clinically confined schizophrenic, not with drugs or talking therapy and dream analysis, but with art therapy as she painted her way through the illness in an inner process concretized in art therapy before returning to society and work.  

My Jungian explorative process led me to work for a brief period with another highly respected senior and very creative contemporary of Toni, Dr. Sonja Marjasch, specialist for the arts, after which I helped her and a neighbor as consultant for garden design/build projects when they became dear friends.  

I made my initial personal, experimental sandplay experience with Jungian Training Analyst Ruth Ammann, also a sandplay therapist and a Zürich ETH educated practising architect, with whom I could on occasion discuss design education. I did the ISST (International Society for Sandplay Therapy) 'Required Personal Process' with Martin Kalff, the son of Dora Kalff who had developed Jungian Sandplay Therapy. Martin holds a Columbia University PhD in Comparative Religion, having made earlier studies with the Dalai Lama's senior people in Tibetan Buddhism. He has accompanied, introduced or acted as a spokesman for the Dalai Lama in the German speaking world, being also an official scholar and historian on Tibetan Buddhism. While moving forward in the latter stages in my own developmental process, I organized English-speaking, sandplay therapy case study 'Foundation Seminars' with Ruth, with Martin (including a lecture series comparing the shadow and feminine in Tibetan Buddhism and Jungian Psychology) and with Zürich psychiatrist and sandplay therapist Kasper Kiepenheuer, who along with Martin was one of the founding members of the ISST. These English-speaking seminars were for a small group of Canadian therapists, several Americans and a physician from Moscow, all in training as analysts. I also attended regional (AISPT) and international (ISST) sandplay therapy congresses in Italy, where sandplay cases were presented in lectures and seminars.  

I've worked on the inner myth-related life at the symbolic level for more than 20 years, as Jung himself had done. While exploring the inner reaches of his own mind and the origins of creativity, he had remained absolutely grounded and centered in his body aided by his world travels, cooking, hiking, boating, fishing, hatha yoga, working in his vegetable garden, preparing and drying firewood, as an artist and craftsman and, in a 32-year construction project, erecting with the help of a stone mason in 5 phases, then maintaining the castle-tower complex. It was built with stone quarried near Bollingen, with part of its foundations out in the water, something like a miniature Chateau de Chillon on the edge of the Zürichsee.  

Jung had said in BBC filmed interviews, re-recorded recently on video-tape, The World Within, "There are things in the psyche I do not produce.... Inner fantasies are facts. A man may lose his life (or it may happen to another in the dream) and then it may happen in the outer world. It may be predictive (meaning the one who remains absolutely grounded and takes into consideration the world from within gains superior insight).... America is extroverted like hell! (This means being comfortable primarily with material objects in the outer world, with a tremendous fear of the inner life and the objective reality of the psyche.) There is no place for the introvert. Wars are an example of the danger of the psyche when we know nothing of it. If you are unconscious about certain things that ought to be conscious you are dissociated.... In the end it is a moral question whether a man applies what he has learned or not.... Man becomes what he is meant to be, but most get stuck. It is not popular to spend time on oneself because our points of view are so extraverted. We need to live on a myth with history. Man is not complete if he is not conscious of that aspect of things that is the biological truth, not just the statistical truth, where the individual qualities are wiped out, like specific values. We think we are people born to be of no myth, where everything is reduced to an average or a statistical truth. This is unhygienic, it deprives people of the creative background of their situation.... What we need is the development of the inner spiritual man, the unique individual who's treasure is hidden in the symbols of our mythological tradition and in man's unconscious psyche.... The images of the unconscious place a great responsibility on a man. Failure to understand them or a shrinking of ethical responsibility deprives him of his wholeness and imposes a painful fragmentariness on his life."  

In a recent biography, Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul, by Claire Dunne, in the Introduction, Jean Houston summed up the essence of Jung's legacy which paves the way for a major leap forward in public consciousness in the Twenty-First Century. His "wide ranging visions consistently pointed the way for much of what became the Human Potential Movement, depth psychology, a revolution in spiritual understanding, and an inclusive universal view of life and its purpose.... Jung's work is a vital bridge linking east and west to each other.... In this regard he was one of the first to show how many members of European-derived cultures revelling in technique and objective mastery are sadly lacking in spiritual awareness and subjective complexity found in indigenous cultures belonging to other stages of historical development....  

(Jung's) individuation process is a self-realization of the psyche through experiences of its deeper layers and integrating them, (it) brings us into wholeness of being. It is at this point that we come into our own, our natural state of living equilibrium, as earth-rooted and spiritually centered people who recognize the Source of our lives, the Ground of all Being, and are willing and able to serve its purposes in a co-creative manner."  

To know others is wisdom,
To know yourself is enlightenment
To master others requires force,
To master yourself requires true strength.

Lao-tzu, Tao-te Ching

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